What is physical therapy ? Why is it important in healthcare?


What is physical therapy ?

Physical therapy is one of the health care professions. It is delivered by physiotherapists to promote, maintain or restore health through physical examination, diagnosis, prognosis, patient education, physical intervention, rehabilitation, prevention, disease prevention and health promotion. Physiotherapists are known as physiotherapists in many countries.

In addition to clinical practice, other aspects of physical therapy include research, education, counseling, and health management. Physical therapy is provided as a primary care treatment or in combination with other medical services. In some jurisdictions, such as the UK, a physiotherapist has the authority to prescribe medication.

Physical therapy industry overview

Physical therapy addresses illnesses or injuries that limit people’s ability to move and perform functional activities in their daily lives. Physicians use an individual’s history and physical exam to arrive at a diagnosis and establish a management plan, combining the results of imaging and laboratory studies such as X-rays, CT scans, and X-rays. or MRI.

Electrodiagnostic testing (eg, electromyography and nerve conduction velocity testing) may also be used. Treatment regimens include prescribing and supporting specific exercises using manual therapy or mechanical devices such as traction, education, electrophysiological modalities including heat, cold, electricity, sound waves , pulsed shortwave, assistive devices, prosthetics, orthopedics and other interventional modalities.

In addition, physiotherapy can advise to prevent mobility loss before it occurs by developing fitness and wellness programs for a healthy and active lifestyle. provides services to individuals and communities to develop, maintain, and restore mobility and increase life expectancy.

Physiotherapy is a specialty that has many specialties including musculoskeletal, orthopedic, cardiopulmonary, neurology, endocrinology, sports medicine, gerontology, pediatrics, women’s health, wound care injury and electromechanical. In particular, neurological rehabilitation is a rapidly growing area within the physical therapy industry.

Physical therapy can be found in many places such as physical therapy clinics, outpatient clinics or counseling offices, hospitals and general health clinics, rehabilitation hospital facilities, fitness center and sports training facility…

Physiotherapists are also known in non-patient caregiving roles such as health policy. In this role, physiotherapists enter the medical field as specialists, performing peer review and independent medical examination.

Areas of expertise

The knowledge of physical therapy is vast, and therefore physiotherapists can specialize in a particular clinical area. The American Board of Physiotherapy Specialties lists ten current specialty certifications below. Most Physiotherapists will have to undergo ongoing further training according to the requirements set forth by each professional board in each country.

Heart and lungs

Respiratory and pulmonary rehabilitation physiotherapists provide therapy for a wide variety of cardiopulmonary disorders or before and after cardiopulmonary surgery. The main goals of this specialty include increased endurance and functional independence. Manual therapy is used in this area to assist in clearing lung secretions caused by cystic fibrosis. Pulmonary disorders, heart attacks, post-coronary artery bypass surgery, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary fibrosis, treatments can offer positive benefits to patients.

Clinical electrophysiology

This area of ​​expertise includes electrotherapy/physical agents, electrophysiological evaluation (EMG/NCV), and physical agents.

Geriatrics

Geriatric physiotherapy covers many of the issues involved in going through the normal aging process of adulthood but often focuses on older adults. There are many conditions that affect older adults including the following: arthritis, osteoporosis, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, hip and joint replacements, balance disorders, urinary incontinence, etc. Geriatric therapists specialize in providing therapy for such conditions in older adults.

Physical rehabilitation can prevent deterioration in health and activities of daily living right at home. Current evidence shows physical health benefits from performing a variety of rehabilitative exercises to improve daily living, strength, flexibility, balance, mood, and intelligence. memory, endurance during exercise. It may be safe and effective in improving physical and mental well-being and reducing disability in some elderly people.

Injury treatment

Trauma physiotherapy includes the treatment of the soft tissue lesion and all its related organs. Common conditions such as trauma to the skin and burns. Physiotherapists may use surgical instruments, wound washes, dressings, and topical agents to remove contaminated or damaged tissue and promote tissue healing. Other commonly used interventions include exercise, edema control, splints, and compression clothing. The work done by physiotherapists in the complementary specialty is similar to what would be done by doctors or medical nurses in the emergency room or clinic.

Neurology

Neurophysical therapy is an area that focuses on patients with neurological disorders. These can include stroke, chronic back pain, Alzheimer’s disease, Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT), ALS, brain injury, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, facial paralysis, and spinal cord damage. Common neurological disabilities include impairments in vision, balance, mobility, activities of daily living, locomotion, muscle strength, and loss of physical independence. function. The techniques involved in neurophysiology are varied and often require specialized training.

Neurophysical therapy is also known as neurophysiology or neurorehabilitation. Neurophysiological therapists are recommended in conjunction with psychotherapies when treating movement disorders. This is especially important because a combination of physical therapy and psychotherapy can improve a patient’s neurological condition.

Orthopedic

Orthopedic physiotherapists diagnose and treat disorders and injuries of the musculoskeletal system including rehabilitation after orthopedic surgery. Acute trauma such as sprains and strains, insidious onset injuries such as tendon disease, bursitis, and malformations such as scoliosis. This physical therapy specialty is most commonly found in an outpatient hospital setting. Chiropractors are trained to treat post-operative orthopedic procedures, fractures, acute sports injuries, arthritis, sprains, strains, back and neck pain, and spinal conditions. and amputation.

Joint and spine mobility/mobility, dry needling (similar to acupuncture), exercise therapy, neuromuscular techniques, extracorporeal shock waves, hot/cold compresses, and electrical muscle stimulation (eg, cryotherapy, electrophoresis, electrotherapy) are modalities used to accelerate recovery in orthopedics. In addition, an emerging supportive method for diagnosis and treatment is the use of ultrasound for muscle diagnosis and rehabilitation. People with an injury or disease affecting muscles, bones, ligaments or tendons will be evaluated by a physical therapist who specializes in orthopedics.

Pediatric physiotherapy

Physiotherapy for children supports early detection of health problems and implementation of physical therapy for disorders in children. Pediatric physiotherapists specialize in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of infants, children, and adolescents with a wide range of congenital, developmental, neuromuscular, skeletal, or acquired diseases/disorders. Treatments focus primarily on improving gross and fine motor skills, balance and coordination, strength and endurance, as well as cognitive and sensory processing/integration.

Sport

Physical therapists closely involved in the care and well-being of athletes include recreational, semi-professional (paid) and professional (full-time) participants. This area of ​​practice covers sports injury management under 5 key categories:

  • Acute care – initial trauma assessment and diagnosis;
  • Treatment – ​​applying expert advice and techniques to promote healing;
  • Rehabilitation – managing the condition to return to sport;
  • prevention – identifying and addressing defects that are known to directly lead to or serve as a precondition for injury, such as motion assessment.
  • education – sharing expertise for individual athletes, teams or clubs to aid in injury prevention or management

Physiotherapists who work for professional sports teams often have specialized sports certifications issued through their national registrar.

Women’s Health

Women’s Health Physiotherapy primarily deals with women’s issues related to female reproduction, childbirth, and the postpartum period. These conditions include lymphedema, osteoporosis, pelvic pain, pre- and postpartum periods, and urinary incontinence. It also addresses urinary incontinence, pelvic pain, and other disorders associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. Manual physical therapy has been shown in many studies to increase conception rates in infertile women.

Oncology physiotherapy

Physiotherapy in the field of oncology and palliative care is a constantly evolving and perfecting specialty, both in malignancy and non-malignancy. Physiotherapy for both groups of patients is now recognized as an essential part of the clinical pathway, as early diagnosis and new treatments help patients live longer. It is generally accepted that patients should have access to an appropriate level of rehabilitation, so that they can function with minimal dependence and optimize their quality of life, regardless of age. How long is their lifespan?

Source: Wikipedia – editor thietbiketnoi.com

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