What is a car turbocharger?


What is a car turbocharger? Advantages and disadvantages of turbochargers like? Why are turbochargers increasingly popular? This is a common question of many car buyers.

What is a car turbocharger?

Turbocharged engines are considered a common solution by many vehicle manufacturers, thanks to their benefits. Superchargers for cars are the system that compresses more air into the combustion chamber to help bring into the combustion chamber more fuel, to increase the capacity when the mixture burns in the cylinder. Turbochargers are generally referred to as forced fuel filling systems instead of naturally aspirated as conventional fuel filling systems.

Turbocharged engine on the Lexus LS 500Turbocharged engine on the Lexus LS 500

Turbochargers of cars are mechanical devices that enhance combustion, increase engine power when compressing gas into cylinders. At present, turbocharged engines are used on many cars from sedans to SUVs … of popular car manufacturers such as Honda, Hyundai, Mazda …

Turbocharged engines are divided into two types: turbocharge and supercharge. Turbocharge and supercharge have different power supplies with different operating principles.

Turbocharger (referred to as turbo) is a mechanical device operated by exhaust gas to increase engine power by pumping air into combustion chambers of turbines and compressors. Superchargers use engine exhaust to compress and put into the combustion chamber, so the temperature is very high, so it often comes with an intermediate cooler, to cool the compressed air before putting it into the engine. . Intermediate cooling unit helps hot air to release heat, increasing density before entering the combustion chamber. Intermediate chiller is placed between turbochager and air intake compartment.

Unlike turbo using power from exhaust, supercharge uses belts. The belt is connected to the engine crankshaft to provide direct thrust to the turbocharger. The turbochargers were now just a parasitic system and the power of the engine driving the compressed air system was reduced. Currently turbocharged engine is applied more than supercharge.

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Advantages and disadvantages of turbochargers

The use of turbocharged engines brings many benefits to the users of equipped cars, from effectively reducing emissions, reducing pressure on the environment to saving fuel costs. Turbocharged engines are the choice of many mid to high-end models of many car manufacturers in the world such as Germany, Japan, Korea, the US …

Turbocharged engine brings efficiency to the userTurbocharged engine brings efficiency to the user

Turbocharging helps the engine retain its high performance, despite the size being reduced to maximize fuel economy for the vehicle. Turbochargers also help to increase engine power without increasing the capacity or number of cylinders, reducing internal friction due to fewer parts thus ensuring fuel consumption.

Fuel-efficient turbocharged engineFuel-efficient turbocharged engine

The turbocharged engine also creates a high spin during air compression before being brought into the combustion chamber. Because of this, the air and fuel are mixed, the propulsion mixture is completely burned, increasing efficiency and reducing fuel consumption.

The reduction of engine size also helps the car manufacturer to narrow the engine storage area, the same length and width as the previous size of the car but the passenger compartment is larger. On top of that, a large displacement engine will reach a higher tax on the owner, so a smaller turbocharger will be an advantage when the price of the owner is lighter. This is also the psychological hit point for car buyers when cars adopt modern technology at reasonable prices.

The turbocharged engine makes use of a portion of the reused emissions during the compression process and thus provides more air into the engine than traditional natural intake, reducing air pollution. gas when operating the vehicle. For many countries with stringent engine emissions standards, turbochargers help reduce pressure on the environment.

Environmentally friendly turbocharged engineEnvironmentally friendly turbocharged engine

However, facing the fact that every problem has two sides and turbocharged engine can not avoid its disadvantages. The biggest drawback of turbochargers is latency. The latency makes speed-conscious drivers not feel strong driving, as well as the car exhaust does not have powerful sound. So many racing manufacturers don’t choose turbochargers for their products.

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According to the evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of turbochargers from experts, turbochargers have big disadvantages which are latency. Turbocharged engine is designed from durable materials, to ensure longevity but when the problem occurs, the cost of repair and replacement of parts will cost more than the naturally aspirated engine many times. However, car manufacturers have constantly developed and improved to make turbocharged engines more and more complete, overcoming the shortcomings that are encountered.

Minh Hung

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