Types of car power steering and common faults

Types of car power steering and common faults

Steering power is an important part of an automotive steering system. If power steering is in trouble, steering greatly affects steering.

What is power steering?

Car steering assist is a system that adds the necessary force, helping drive the steering wheel becomes lighter and easier. Steering wheel car which is very heavy, it takes a lot of force to control it. However, thanks to the power steering system, the driver does not need to use too much force.

Car Steering Assist is an additional system of power that makes steering smoother

Types of power steering

Automotive hydraulic power steering (oil power)

Hydraulic Power Steering (HPS) is a type of power steering that uses oil pressure to assist in steering wheel.

Hydraulic power steering is the type of power steering that uses oil pressure

Structure of hydraulic power steering includes: power pump, oil tank, distribution valve, plunger attached to the tooth bar.

Working principle of hydraulic power steering: The motor transmits the power to the power pump through the belt. When stepping on the steering wheel, the distribution valve sends oil through the high-pressure oil supply line into the piston. The difference between the oil pressure at the two ends of the plunger will create thrust, thereby helping to push the rotating tooth bar in the direction that the driver controls.


  • Real driving feeling, the driver easily feels feedback from the steering wheel
  • Low maintenance costs


  • Driving feeling is still quite heavy, especially when driving at low speeds
  • The weight of the power system is large, large in size, taking up a lot of space
  • Much fuel consumption due to always in active state

Electric power steering

Electric Power Assisted Steering (EPS / EPAS or Motor Driven Power Steering (MDPS) is a type of power steering that uses an electric motor to aid in steering.

See more:

  • The correct way to hold the steering wheel

  • What to do if the car is locked?

Electric power steering is the type of power steering using an electric motor

Structure of electric power steering includes: sensors located on steering shaft and electric motor.

Working principle of electric power steering: When steering the steering wheel, the torque sensor at the steering axis position sends the steering angle signal to the ECU processing center. From here, the ECU will calculate to transmit the appropriate current to the electric motor to push the upper teeth rulersFrom there, it supports the steering force in the direction of the driver’s control.


  • Light steering feeling, not using as much power as oil power
  • Save fuel by using electricity, not using engine power
  • Light-weight


  • Lack of truth, little response from the steering wheel
  • High repair costs

Nowadays, electric power is used more commonly than oil power. The majority of car models, from popular low-cost lines like Hyundai i10, Kia Morning, Toyota Vios, Hyundai Accent… to luxury cars like the automaker’s Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Audi, Lexus, Volvo… all using electric power steering. Another point is that high-end cars have a speed variation feature, which means that when the car is running at low speed, the steering wheel will be light, when the car is running at high speed, the steering wheel will be heavy to create a feeling of comfort and firmness. .

However, many Japanese car maker still equipped with oil steering power on some models of cars that require high precision and honesty when stepping. Models that use power steering are for the most part SUVs and pickup trucks like Toyota Fortuner, Toyota Hilux, Mitsubishi Pajero Sport, Mitsubishi Triton, Nissan Terra, Nissan Navara

Common power steering errors

Some common power steering errors:

Lack of power steering oil

Short power steering fluid car This is one of the most common problems encountered in a vehicle that is often under maintenance. For the power pump to work, oil is required to guide the plunger. If the car lacks the power steering oil, the car will not feel smooth when hitting the steering wheel.

See more:

  • Cause the steering wheel is torn
Lack of fuel oil to drive a car is one of the common problems

To check if the power steering is lacking oil, just check the oil level in the tank. If below necessary, the power steering oil should be changed to ensure that the power steering system can work smoothly.

The power steering belt is damaged

This is a common fault in the hydraulic power steering system. The power pump belt is designed to connect with the power pump shaft, which is responsible for transferring power from the engine to the power pump. If the belts are worn or malfunctioning, the power steering system will be affected.

To see if the belts are faulty, check the power pump belts. If you find that the pendant has many cracks, the wire is worn out and needs to be replaced. If the rope is only slipped on the spark plug, then just tighten the belt. When the steering wheel belts slip, there will be a screeching sound, in The tomb is heavy due to the poor operating speed of the rotary pump.

The power pump is damaged

The power pump helps to supply enough oil pressure to the hydraulic power steering to function. Therefore, the power pump plays a very important role in the hydraulic power steering system. If the power pump is damaged, it will not provide enough oil pressure and prevent the system from working properly.

Damaged steering pump will affect the entire power system

The oil dispenser valve is damaged

Damaged oil distribution valves are also one of the most common problems with oil steering. To check if the oil distribution valve is working properly, it is not possible to use the way to turn the drive to the right and to the left. When tested in this way, the tires of a car must have the correct pressure according to the manufacturer’s specifications.

If the valve is normal, a soft noise will be heard when the wheel is moved completely to one side. If there is no sound, it is possible that the oil dispenser valve has had some problem. It is best to take your car to a car repair center for proper inspection and handling.

Steering power is an important part of a car’s steering system. If you find any abnormal signs, you should check your car for immediate treatment. It’s not just the power steering problem but the steering problem in general the car is off-wheel, the car is distracted… also need to be overcome soon to ensure that you can control the steering wheel accurately and drive safely.

Minh Vuong

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