Tubal ligation: effectiveness and advantages

Tubal ligation: effectiveness and advantages


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THE ligation or ligation of the fallopian tubes it is a contraceptive method that closes the tubes that connect the ovaries to a woman’s uterus. Women who undergo this surgery can no longer conceive again. Bandaging is therefore considered a method of contraception permanent and irreversible. This surgical intervention corresponding to the performance of vasectomy in men.

  • Who can ligate the fallopian tubes

  • How sterilization is done

  • Efficacy of tubal ligation

  • Advantages and disadvantages of tube ligation

  • Side effects of tube ligation

  • Reversal of tubal ligation

Who can ligate the fallopian tubes

Tubal ligation is a permanent method of contraception that can be recommended for adult women who know with certainty that don’t want to have new pregnancies in the future. There are women who regret this decision and in the future want a new pregnancy. In such cases, it is necessary to have another surgery to rewire the tubes. The success rate for this new intervention is 50% to 90%. It is, therefore, a ‘definitive’ family planning method, which should be discouraged in young women, who in the future may regret having performed this intervention. In general, doctors refuse to perform the ligation on women who are still childless and require psychological counseling before surgery.

How sterilization is done

Usually, the procedure is performed by laparoscopy. It is an outpatient surgery performed under general or local anesthesia. In this case, the woman remains awake, but feels no pain. The operation involves the insertion of a laparoscope (narrow tube with a small camera at the end) and the other instruments through the pelvic region. The procedure can be done through cutting, cauterization or closure of the tubes. The operation takes about 30 minutes and can be performed after a vaginal delivery or by minilaparotomy during a cesarean section.

Efficacy of tubal ligation

Its effectiveness as a family planning method is about 99%. However, if the closure is unsuccessful, there is a possibility of an ectopic pregnancy (outside the womb) in the future.

Advantages and disadvantages of tube ligation

Among the advantages of sterilization are its high rate of effectiveness, low risk of complications and savings with the use of long-term contraceptive methods, such as the birth control pill. On the other hand, its main disadvantage is the difficulty to reverse the procedure in women who wish to have more children after the bandage. There is also no prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

Side effects of tube ligation

There are basically two types of consequences. There is a possibility short-term complications inherent in any surgery such as problems with anesthesia, hemorrhage, hematoma and scar infection. In the long run, there may be menstrual problems and an increased possibility of ovarian cysts. These two complications, however, still need further studies to confirm them. There is also a risk of decreased sexual desire. On the other hand, some women experience increased libido due to the impossibility of becoming pregnant.

Reversal of tubal ligation

About 5% of women who made the bandage request the intervention to reverse its effects. This percentage increases among younger or divorced women who want a child with their new partner. Reversal is only possible if the ends of the bandage are longer than 6 centimeters. Otherwise, the patient is recommended to try a in vitro fertilization. Reversal is a more complicated procedure than ligation, because it must be performed by microsurgery. It usually lasts for about two hours and is effective between 50% and 90%.

Photo: © Thanapun – Shutterstock.com

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