In all primates, humans are probably in the group "The most fat home"Monkeys and chimpanzees store only about 9% of the body's fat, while humans tend to double their reserves.
But drill for blame fast food and soft drinks and for hours we sit idle in front of the TV and the phone. From the moment of birth, it seems that humans have brought a destiny: to be fat.
A new study from Duke University has discovered a gene "anti-fat"Monkeys and chimpanzees have been hidden when they evolved into humans. This gene is responsible for converting calories into brown fat tissues that are easily digested.
Losing the service of an important gene, humans store more white fat, which we must exercise to burn out.
Result? "We are a fat primate ", gene function researcher Devi Swain-Lenz, from Duke University said.
This is the reason people are born with a destiny: Must be fat
To find out why very small differences in the genome can produce large contrast on the waistlines of humans and primates, Swain-Lenz and her team sampled human fat, chimpanzees. and a distant relative of us, zebra monkey.
In fact, adipose tissue is divided into two types: brown fat and white fat. Brown adipose tissue keeps fat in small droplets surrounded by mitochondria that convert energy. The main purpose of brown fat is to provide fuel that helps the body quickly produce heat when body temperature decreases.
For example, when you shiver or shiver in the winter, that's when brown fat is working for heating. Brown fat is released and dissipates very quickly when your body needs to increase its temperature.
In contrast, white fat is not easily destroyed. It stubbornly stayed in the body serving as a backup fuel, while white fat tended to store to thicken into a protective and insulating cushion for the body.
White fat makes you fat in an unhealthy way, if it accumulates too much around organs, it will cause great harm to your health.
Brown fat and white fat
In fatty tissues obtained from humans, chimpanzees and macaques, scientists noticed a gene called a nuclear factor 1-A. This gene works to promote the storage of brown fat instead of white fat.
Nuclear factor 1-A is quite similar in both humans, chimpanzees and macaque monkeys. Only thing in people, it has been "buried"Less expression and activity makes us store more white fat.
Normally, DNA sequences have two parts, one partially curled up inside the cell as a form of protection. They are surrounded by proteins. The remaining DNA portion is exposed and easier to express and function.
Nuclear factor 1-A of humans appears on the stretch of DNA, and chimpanzees and macaques appear on the open DNA segment. And that has made a difference regarding the pathway of lipid metabolism.
The new discovery of the scientists raises an interesting question: Why do humans evolve for millions of years to bury the brown fat-converting DNA regions?
A hypothesis poses regarding brain size and skull. After evolving and breaking up the chimpanzee, the volume of the human brain has tripled while the chimp brain only stalled.
A larger brain and nervous system also requires significantly greater energy needs. Thus, the nuclear factor 1-A began to be hidden in. People now need more white fat to store their brain, rather than using brown fat to warm their bodies.
With larger brains and greater energy resources, we can find other ways to heat, including using fire and clothing.
Obesity is affecting 500 million people worldwide
Now, what can we expect when we rummage through our own genome to detect a gene? "anti-fat"hidden?
Will finding a way to excavate the Nuclear factor 1-A gene will help people avoid white fat storage, increase the amount of brown fat and solve the obesity epidemic that is affecting 500 million people worldwide?
"Perhaps we can find a group of genes that we need to turn on or off [để làm được điều đó]", Swain-Lenz said. But she also notes that this work is very difficult and needs more research to be sure.
"I don't think it's as simple as turning on a switch. If it's simple, we've done it for a long time. ", Swain-Lenz emphasized.
The study is published in the journal Genome Biology and Evolution.