Servqual: 5-gap model to improve service quality

The service sector is playing an increasingly important role in economies. In particular, service quality is always the issue that users expect and the provider is most concerned about.

5 gap model service quality

Because the service is invisible, it is very difficult to measure quality. Service quality can be viewed as the level of meeting customers ‘needs or expectations, or the gap between customers’ expectations and their perceptions when using the service.

When it comes to service quality, it is impossible not to mention the Servqual model – a great contribution of Parasuraman and colleagues, which has been widely applied in the fields of banking services, restaurants, and hotels. , hospitals, schools, aviation …

The Servqual model (compounded from the words “Service – Service” and “Quality – Quality”) shows 5 main gaps related to perceptions of service quality management and related jobs. Distribute services to customers. Those gaps are the gaps between customers’ expectations and their perception of the service, called satisfaction. Based on this difference, customers will be satisfied or dissatisfied about the service they receive.

Gap 1 appears when there is a difference between customer expectations about service quality and a service provider’s perception of customer expectations. The key to this difference is that service providers do not fully understand what makes the service quality and how to deliver it to customers to satisfy their needs.

Gap 2 appears when service providers have difficulty translating their customers’ perceptions of expectations into quality characteristics. The main cause of this problem is the professional competence of the service staff as well as the level of fluctuations in service demand. There are times when demand for services is too high to keep up with suppliers.

Distance 3 appears when the service personnel do not deliver services to the customers according to the defined criteria. The role of a direct teller is very important in creating service quality.

Distance 4 relates to advertising facilities and information. Promises in advertising programs and promotions can increase customer expectations but will also reduce the quality that customers feel when they are not fulfilled according to what was promised.

A gap of 5 appears when there is a difference between the quality expected by the customer and the quality received. Service quality depends on this 5th distance. Once a customer realizes that there is no difference between the expected quality and the perceived quality when using a service, the quality of the service is considered to be perfect.

How is the application?

It can be seen that service quality is a function of the fifth distance; And this distance depends on the previous distance. Therefore, in order to bridge the fifth gap and increase the quality of service, the supplier must make efforts to close these gaps. Doing so requires a passion to create value and enough customer relationships to add value to the kind of quality of service that the business provides.

To shorten the distance 1, administrators need to find out to know exactly what customers’ expectations for the service are?

For gap 2, the administrator should clearly identify the characteristics that make up the quality of service and clearly state those features.

To reduce distance 3, it is necessary to improve the competence of service staff and address technology, equipment or funding constraints, such as increasing the network transmission speed of the network provider or E-commerce business.

Gap 4 requires the administration of customer expectations, not promises and builds too many expectations so that customers will be disappointed.

In order to shorten the gap 5, in general, the managers must really understand their customers, needs and expectations about the services of the business, and constantly apply and innovate the management and public administration methods. technology to convey the best service to customers.

From another perspective, the application of the above-mentioned 5-gap model to service quality management can be expressed in the 5 basic components of service quality.

First of all, creating reliability through the ability to perform the service properly and on time right the first time. Next is the willingness to meet (responsiveness) of customers’ needs, through the wishes and willingness of service staff, to provide timely services to customers.

The third component is service capacity (assurance), expressed through professional qualifications and courteous and hospitable service to customers. The fourth is to show empathy with customers, to take care of each individual customer.

Ultimately, tangibles must be adequately and effectively furnished, reflected in service, hygiene, safety, comfort facilities, equipment, personal appearance and clothing. waiters.

My Ngan
* Source: Saigon Businessman


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