Rules for writing l / n, ch / tr, x / s, c / q / k, i / y, correct spelling in Vietnamese


One of the reasons why many people write misspellings is not to grasp the spelling rules in Vietnamese. Here are some spelling rules in Vietnamese that you can refer to to avoid misspelling and preserve the purity of Vietnamese.

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Distinguish l / n, ch / tr, x / s, gc / q / k, i / y in Vietnamese

  • 1. Distinguishing l / n
  • 2. Differentiate ch / tr
  • 3. Differentiate gi / r / d
  • 4. Distinguishing x / s
  • 5. Distinguishing g / gh / ng
  • 6. Distinguishing c / k / q
  • 7. Rules for writing vowel sounds i / y

Correct grammar

1. Distinguishing l / n

In the spelling:

  • L: Before the accompaniments (oa, oe, uâ, uy)

For example: loan, attachment, speaker …

  • N: Do not stand before the sounds with accompaniment except 2 syllables: noa, ovum.
  • N: Often used in words that indicate location or hiding. For example: hey, hide, dodge, nestle …

In structure from fire:

  • L / n don’t sound negative to each other.
  • L may faintly spell with other consonants. For example, looming, indented, lethargic, lame …
  • N is only negative for itself. For example, hangover, fullness, blooming, debt, cooking …

2. Differentiate ch / tr

Only used in the following cases:

  • Top of the sounds with accompaniment (oa, oă, oe, uê). For example: cloak, lice, dizziness, swagger, twinkle …
  • Nouns (or pronouns) refer to familiar relationships in the family. For example: father, uncle, sister, husband, guy …
  • Nouns refer to common household objects. For example, blankets, mats, pans, cups, brooms, bottles …
  • Words have negative meanings. For example: not yet, no, cha …
  • Names of dishes such as porridge, spring rolls, tea …
  • Name of trees, names of fruits such as banana, rambutan, lemon …
  • Movement, labor, body manipulation. For example: running, blocking, tightening, splitting …

Tr is used in the following cases:

  • Sino-Vietnamese words have heavy bars or magical bars. For example: value, presentation, status, environment, gravity …

In structure from fire:

  • Tr: Creating the overhang is the main thing. For example: white, preoccupied, bare, identical shaft, shameless, shutter identical …
  • Ch: Make your sound both rhyming and sounding. For example: playing with, unsteady …
Commemorative ancestors, new trees spelled correctly.
Commemorative ancestors, new trees spelled correctly.

3. Differentiate gi / r / d

Use cases d:

  • Top of the rhyme with accompaniment (oa, oe, uê, uy). For example: parade, business, descendant, bullying …
  • Often used in Sino-Vietnamese words with self (~) or heavy bars (.). For example: magic, idyllic, actor, mutant, barbaric, prom, uniform, attractive …
  • Often written with sounds that have a dark tone or a horizontal bar when rhyme has a different initial sound a. For example: melodious, ample, cavalier, spy …

Cases of using what:

  • The voices have a timbre or a question bar. For example: triangle, price, explanation, introduction …
  • The sounds have a magical bar or a horizontal bar when rhyme has the first sound a. For example: increase, combat, cunning, servants …

In structure from fire:

Both gi / r / d have the word taken. For example: old, struggling, urging, vinegar … persistently, oiled, suppressed … brimming, crept, distinctly, radiant …

Rhyme:

  • The sound with d usually sounds like the sound with l. For example: lai dai, lim dim, detector …
  • The r sound usually sounds like a b or c sound. For example: update, co ro, cha rn, update …
  • What sounds common is the sound with n. For example: anchoring, rocking …
  • The word simulated noise are written r. For example: murmuring, murmuring …
Some words have different variations
Barricade – profuse bad – bad Imitation – unfounding
fraying – stomping Termination – annoyance Shaggy – stomp
people – striving Definition of Wormwood – Wormworm

In the composition of compound words:

Only compound words have initial sounds gi and d together, no compound words have initial sounds r and d or r and gi.

For example: transaction, casual, angry, fake, angry …

4. Distinguishing x / s

The way of distinguishing x / s is not to have its own rules, so as not to misspell the x / s the only way is to understand the meaning of words, read a lot and write a lot.

However, there are some notes we can avoid to misspell the x / s:

  • X: Appears in accompaniment sounds (oa, oe, uâ, uy). For example: always, curb, swoo, swagger, shaggy, ugly …
  • S: Only appears in a few syllables with accompaniment such as: control, compose, compose, compose, rate.
  • X and s never appear in the same word.

Some compound words with initial consonant s with x many people or misspellings: probability, lottery, country, production, review, excellence …

5. Distinguishing g / gh / ng

  • Gh, ngh: Write before the vowels e, ê, i, iê (ia). For example, rest, listen, think …
  • G, ng: Write before the remaining vowels. For example: dates, suspicion, sweetness …

6. Distinguishing c / k / q

  • Q: Write first the syllables with the accompaniment in u.
  • K: Write before the vowels e, ê, i (iê, ia).
  • C: Pre-write the remaining vowels, including: a, ă, â, o, ô, ơ, u, ư.

7. Rules for writing vowel sounds i / y

In case of writing y:

  • Stand alone. For example: health, meaning …
  • Behind the sound of u. For example, rules, thoughts …
  • Diphthongs in the first place. For example: yearbook, peace …

In case of writing i:

  • First position (without accompaniment). For example: printing, silence …
  • End position (except uy, ay, here). For example: jasmine, underground.

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