Menstruation: functioning and problems

Menstruation: functioning and problems

#Menstruation #functioning #problems

Menstruation is a physiological loss of blood from the uterus that happens every four weeks in women, if the fertilization of the egg has not occurred. Through menstruation, the uterine endometrium.

  • How menstruation works

  • Menstrual cycle length

  • First menstruation

  • Menstruation blood characteristics

  • Odor of menstruation

  • Amenorrhea

  • Causes of irregular menstruation

    • Oligomenorrhea

    • Metrorrhagia

    • Menorrhagia

    • Hypermenorrhagia

  • Treatment for irregular menstruation

How menstruation works

The hormones estrogen and progesterone, produced by the ovarian follicle, promote endometrial development for pregnancy. The endometrium, the walls of the uterus, increase in size ready to receive the fertilized egg and promote its adhesion in the uterus, where the possible pregnancy will develop. If there is no fertilization, the concentration of ovarian hormones drops, causing the degeneration and necrosis of the endometrial tissue, which is eliminated with uterine mucus, in addition to blood and hormones.

Menstrual cycle length

Menstruation usually happens every 28 days and lasts for three to six days. Generally, there is a loss of about 30 milliliters of blood.

First menstruation

THE menarche, or the woman’s first menstruation, varies according to each person, but may start between 9 and 18 years old. When menarche occurs very late, it should be investigated as there may be some disorder involved. Already without the symbolism of earlier times, when it could determine a series of changes in the girl’s life, the first menstruation today is just the physiological sign that the organism is already able to generate a new being.

Menstruation blood characteristics

Generally, in the first and last days of the menstrual period, the eliminated blood may be more brown, like a coffee grounds. In the middle of the period it is usually bright red and may even contain clots.

Odor of menstruation

The smell of menstruation is a mixture of blood with the natural odor of the vagina, caused by the bacterial flora existing in the place. When there is an odor different from that mentioned, it is recommended to see a doctor, as this may represent a change in the bacteria that inhabit the vagina, which increases the risk of infections.


THE amenorrhea it is the condition in which the woman stops menstruating. This symptom may be associated with abnormalities in the woman’s reproductive organs and hormonal balance or be an indication of pregnancy. Other conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome or early menopause can also cause amenorrhea.

Causes of irregular menstruation

Irregular menstruation is when the time between each period and the number of days of menstruation varies and there is more or less blood loss than usual. In general, failures of up to 90 days after regular cycles without pregnancy. There are several types of irregular menstruation and all must be investigated by the gynecologist.


THE oligomenorrhea corresponds to infrequent and / or sparse periods. These symptoms are very common in athletes.


THE metrorrhagia corresponds to acyclic bleeding, outside the menstrual period, with increased flow. Its occurrence must be quickly reported to the doctor.


THE menorrhagia represents an increase in the amount of menstrual flow at regular intervals.


THE hypermenorrhagia it is the increase in the amount and duration of menstruation.

Treatment for irregular menstruation

Each case must be analyzed individually, but some measures to correct irregular menstruation include treating the underlying disease, changing the type of contraceptive, change your lifestyle, including losing weight and fighting eating disorders, or even undergoing surgery.

Photo: © Studio KIWI –

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