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Actress Zheng Shuang gave birth to a surrogate child in the United States and intended to abandon it. This unethical move caused intense discussion on the Internet. This is the first time that the topic of surrogacy and assisted reproduction has caused such controversy in China.
Surrogacy is the most controversial corner of the assisted reproduction industry: here is the collision between reproductive rights and women’s rights, here is the balance between human nature and interests, and there is also a moral and ethical impact. Only a few countries and regions in the world implement conditional legalization of surrogacy, and surrogacy in my country is explicitly prohibited.
In fact, the definition of assisted reproductive technology is very broad, including surrogacy, egg freezing and test tube. Assisted reproductive technology itself is the embodiment of human continuous technological innovation and progress. In 1978, the world’s first test-tube baby was born in the UK, opening a new era of human assisted reproductive technology, and it is considered one of the greatest events in the history of world medicine in the 20th century. According to the data of Gaohe Investment Research Center, the infertility rate in the world is as high as 16.4%. With the general work pressure and environmental problems further intensifying, there will be more fertility problems in the future that require assisted reproductive technology to solve, such as Techniques such as egg freezing and IVF will also play a greater role.
Assisted reproductive technology is like two sides of a coin. The sunny side solves the problem of fertility difficulties, while the dark side inadvertently leads to issues of ethical controversy such as gender selection and the black surrogacy industry chain.
Along with huge social public opinion disputes, this industry has to self-discipline and achieve standardization.
Picture from Visual China
1. The history of assisted reproduction
Due to the increase in the average age at first childbirth, as well as the unhealthy lifestyle, environmental pollution, life pressure and other factors, infertility is becoming more and more common worldwide. According to data from Gaohe Investment Research Center, the global prevalence of infertility has increased from 11.0% in 1997 to 16.4% in 2019, and is expected to reach 17.2% in 2023. Infertility worldwide has become the third most common disease after cancer and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
The main methods for the treatment of infertility are drug treatment, surgical treatment and assisted reproduction treatment, among which assisted reproduction has a higher pregnancy rate than the other two treatment methods. According to data provided by Zeng Libin of Heda Capital, at least 20% of couples with infertility patients must rely on assisted reproduction to achieve fertility. Assisted reproduction technology has become the mainstream technology for the treatment of infertility.
Assisted reproduction (ART) includes two categories: artificial insemination (AI) and in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Artificial insemination (AI) includes artificial insemination (AIH) and donor artificial insemination (AID). In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) refers to the technique of taking out gametes from the human body, fertilizing them to form embryos under in vitro conditions, and transferring them into the uterine cavity to implant and develop into fetuses, also known as test tube baby technology.
From the perspective of clinical progress and social significance, the development process of assisted reproductive technology has gone through four key nodes: the birth of artificial insemination, the birth of IVF, the application of in vitro fertilization derivative technology and the new development of assisted reproductive technology.
In 1860, artificial insemination was successful in New York State Hospital. In 1953, scientists at the University of Iowa succeeded in artificial insemination using frozen semen for the first time, and it began to be widely used in the mid-1970s.
In 1978, the first human test-tube baby was born in the UK. Since then, test-tube baby technology has been developed in various countries. On March 10, 1988, the first test-tube baby in mainland China was born. Since then, the development of technology has further improved the pregnancy success rate.
In 1992, Belgium Palermo and others directly injected sperm into the egg cytoplasm and gave birth to the first human ICSI (sperm cytoplasmic microinjection) baby. In 1996, my country’s first ICSI test tube baby was born. In 1999, my country’s first PGD (embryo Preimplantation genetic diagnosis) was successfully completed.
In 1998, the Tomson Laboratory of the University of Wisconsin, USA obtained 5 embryonic stem cell lines from 14 embryos of in vitro fertilization, starting the research process of human germ stem cells since then. my country successfully cultivated embryonic stem cells in 2004, and the development of reproductive engineering technology entered the forefront of the world. In the same year, my country’s frozen egg test tube baby was born. In 2006, my country’s first case and the second international case of “three freezes” (freezing eggs, frozen sperm, frozen embryos) The IVF was born and egg freezing technology gradually developed. In 2014, the world’s first PGD baby with MALBAC amplified sequencing was born in my country.
The continuously developed assisted reproductive technology has been widely used worldwide. According to the data of Gaohe Investment Research Center, nearly 10 million newborns were born through ART in more than 40 years. In some low-fertility countries in Northern Europe, the number of newborns born through IVF/ICIS every year even accounts for 7% of births throughout the year. In China, the amount of IVF/ICSI treatment has been increasing in recent years. In 2019, the statistics exceeded 1 million egg retrieval cycles, and nearly 300,000 newborns were born through this technology each year.
2. Assisted reproduction under the sun
China is the hardest hit area of infertility. The “Survey Report on the Status of Infertility in China” issued by the national government shows that the infertility rate in China has risen from 2.5%-3% 20 years ago to 12.5%-15%, and the number of patients exceeds 50 million. That is, 1 out of every 8 couples have infertility problems.
On the other hand, the full liberalization of the two-child policy at the end of 2015 has resulted in an increase of 3 to 5 million newborns each year, and many women have given birth at an advanced age, which also expanded the demand for assisted reproduction.
For these people, the application of some compliant and legal assisted reproductive technologies is bringing hope of life to Chinese families. For example, older women who want to have children can try IVF, artificial insemination and so on. According to data provided by Zeng Libin of Heda Capital, the scale of my country’s assisted reproductive market is about 25 billion yuan, and the potential market size is more than 100 billion yuan.
As the assisted reproductive industry involves issues such as fertility policies, technological maturity, ethics, and other issues, my country strictly supervises assisted reproduction and adopts an examination and approval system for assisted reproduction licenses, with high approval standards and long approval cycles. For example, an application for an IVF license must be reviewed by the Provincial Health and Family Planning Commission and the National Health and Family Planning Commission, re-examined after one year of trial operation, and then verified every two years. According to data released by the National Health Commission of China, as of the end of 2018, there were only 498 domestic medical institutions approved to carry out human assisted reproductive technology, which is close to the upper limit of the 2020 provincial and municipal plans. At present, 90% of licenses are concentrated in public hospitals and 10% are in private hospitals. Although public assisted reproductive institutions are currently the absolute mainstream of the market, they are far from being able to meet the growing demand. Top public hospitals are in short supply, and waiting time is long. It is understood that for IVF operations in first-tier cities such as Beijing and Shanghai, patients have to wait in line for more than 6 months on average.
After seeing this problem, the state strives to encourage and guide the legal operation of private capital in the field of assisted reproduction. At present, two of the top ten hospitals in the country by number of test tube cycles are private hospitals: one of them is the Aviaf Group established under the guidance of Professor Zhang Lizhu, the mother of test tubes in China, and the other is Chengdu Xi’an Women’s Hospital. In addition, the license of the reproductive medical center has shown signs of accelerating the liberalization of private capital. In 2015, Tongce Medical (600763) Kunming Reproductive Center opened. In 2016, United Family Tianjin Reproductive Center was established. In 2018, Jinqi Medical launched the acquisition of overseas reproductive licensed clinics. In 2019, the National Health Commission issued the “Regulations on Strengthening the Management of Assisted Reproductive Technology Service Institutions and Personnel” to strengthen self-discipline in the assisted reproductive technology industry, and guide assisted reproductive institutions and practitioners to conduct services in a standardized and orderly manner.
Companies on the market include Jinxin Fertility, Mengmei Life, Taimei Yisheng, Grebble Medical, Eugenics International, etc. Among them, Jinxin Fertility has been listed on the Hong Kong stock market in 2019 and has become China’s first “assisted reproductive medical” stock. .
The investment community has reported on Jinxin Medical. In 2017, Jinxin Medical conducted 18018 IVF treatment cycles. This data ranked third in the domestic assisted reproductive service market, and ranked first in the non-state assisted reproductive service market. At the same time, Jinxin Fertility has a relatively high success rate of assisted reproductive medical institutions in China in 2017, reaching 53%, compared with the national average of 45%.
Before going public, Jinxin Fertility acquired HRC Management, a US medical institution. HRC Medical was established in the United States in 1988 by a group of reproductive doctors. According to the Frost & Sullivan report, HRC ranked first in the assisted reproductive service market in the western United States in 2017, with 4,371 IVF treatment cycles.
The huge potential of the assisted reproduction market has also attracted some listed companies, such as Tongce Medical and Meinian Health.
Through high-level cooperation with Cambridge Bonn Reproductive Medicine Center and Hangzhou Medical College, Tongce Medical has obtained resources and support in terms of doctor sharing, brand use, technical standardization management, and quality control procedures. The Bourn Hall Clinic is the world’s first IVF clinic, with the world’s top reproductive treatment technology and brands. According to a research report released by Ping An Securities, the Kunming Maternity and Child Reproductive Hospital jointly established by Tongce Medical Group’s Hangzhou Bonn Company and Kunming Maternity and Child Health Hospital achieved profitability for the first time in the first half of 2017.
In March 2018, Ciming Medical, a subsidiary of Meinian Health, established its subsidiary Ciyun Medical International Pregnancy Center (hereinafter referred to as “Ciyun Medical”), which is an overseas third-generation IVF referral service platform to provide services in assisted reproduction related fields. The main business of Ciyun Medical is eugenic consultation, pregnancy test, and IVF project referral. Wei Yuan, general manager of Ciyun Medical, said that Ciyun Medical has 10 pregnancy centers in Beijing, Tianjin, Shenzhen, Qingdao and other cities. At the same time, Ciyun Medical has established Ciming Boao International Hospital in Hainan, and has set up an American Glybull Gynecology (GFG) Reproductive Center overseas.
In the past two years, the popularity of assisted reproduction in the investment community has increased significantly. From the perspective of the position of the industry chain, capital has a layout in assisted reproductive service providers, medical device providers, Internet + intermediary/consulting service providers and other links.
Source of financing in assisted reproductive field: business card
Three, the other side of assisted reproduction
The domestic market is in short supply, coupled with the technological gap at home and abroad, the overseas assisted reproductive business has emerged. Most domestic institutions still stay in the first generation (ie in vitro insemination-embryo transfer, IVF-ET), the second generation of IVF technology (intracytoplasmic sperm injection, ICSI), while the United States, Japan, Russia, Thailand and other places have The third-generation test-tube baby PGD/PGS (preimplantation embryo genetic diagnosis) technology is used. The advantage of the third-generation technology is that it can advance the time of chromosome diagnosis and examination before embryo transfer, avoid implanting embryos with abnormal chromosome number and structure into the uterus and cause repeated miscarriage, thereby increasing the success rate of pregnancy.
Picture from Visual China
As for the current situation of competition in the cross-border assisted reproductive industry, 36 krypton has found through research that the common feature of these companies is the use of combined punching. “Consulting + service + hospital + insurance”, the complex and fancy one-stop service is the key to attracting high net worth users. Common service packages cover more or less domestic medical consultation, pregnancy test, remote doctor consultation, etc. After customers go overseas, they will also provide on-site pickup, translation, travel itinerary, accommodation, etc. to arrange users Go to overseas hospitals for assisted reproductive surgery, and follow-up health management after surgery.
Throughout the process, the core profit output lies in assisted reproductive medical care itself. Other services are mainly to attract customers, and even many additional services are advertised as free.
After clarifying this point, we can find that there are essentially only two modes of the various service systems on the market:
1. Own hospitals overseas, or have close relationships with overseas hospitals, and have signed exclusive agreements, etc.;
2. The hospital’s resources are not strong, and the service end will make up, relying on more “tricky” services and lower “entry” price competition.
Industry insiders told 36kr that the cost of assisted reproduction is relatively low, with a gross profit of more than 90% and a net profit of more than 50%.
Mengmei Life and Grabco pregnancy are typical players in the first category.
According to the 36Kr report, Mengmei is backed by the largest reproductive medical service center on the west coast of the United States-HRC Reproductive Medical Group. It built the world’s most advanced embryo laboratory at the beginning of its establishment in 1988 and completed the world’s first PGD pass. Test tube case of genetics gene diagnosis technology. At present, the group has 9 hospitals in the United States and 3 U.S. dual-certified embryo laboratories, which can carry out everything from ovulation promotion to breeding and screening to transplantation management in its own hospital. In 2019, Mengmei received 100 million yuan in financing led by CDH.
The Grebble pregnancy reported in 36 krypton also has relatively strong resources in the hospital. The company has a wholly-owned embryo laboratory in the United States. The laboratory has been accredited by the American College of Pathology, authorized by the New York State Department of Health, and registered with the FDA; at the same time, Grabco Medicare has introduced Dr. Kevin Doody, Dr. Andrea Vidali, an internationally renowned robotic surgery expert for endometriosis, and other expert teams have cooperated with many well-known domestic medical institutions and assisted reproduction experts. The company’s market performance currently ranks first on the East Coast of the United States.
Among the companies of the second type of model, Taimei Yisheng, which has achieved profitability within one year of establishment, is representative. 36Kr believes that the company’s characteristics are mainly reflected in the longer service links, transparent prices, no middlemen, and the provision of private butler services.
On top of the traditional assisted reproduction project, Taimei Yisheng’s products and services will cover the pre-pregnancy, health management, care during pregnancy, post-pregnancy fetus, prenatal education, and postpartum restoration. The service cycle is from pregnancy preparation to the birth of the baby, and the entire service will last for 1-2 years.
In terms of price, all medical items of Taimei Yisheng directly adopt the official price of the hospital, and users directly settle the settlement to the hospital at the hospital site. Taimei Yisheng does not charge any profit on medical projects. The source of profit of Taimei Yisheng is translation, food, lodging and transportation, butler service and other medical travel services. The medical project itself has no intermediary and no service fees. Therefore, the price of Taimei Yisheng products can be about 20% lower than similar products.
At the same time, Taimei Yisheng configures exclusive professional medical consultants and private case stewards for each user. From preliminary consultation to project follow-up follow-up, special personnel will be provided to follow up the whole process to ensure that users are in the process of project execution. 7*24 hours Directional service.
Fourth, the hidden dark industry chain
Due to the “unable” or “unwilling” to give birth to pregnancy, the market demand for surrogacy has emerged, which has become a closed loop of the “reproductive” industry, and has also become an inescapable topic of assisted reproduction.
The complex and intertwined interest entanglements behind surrogacy and the serious imbalance between supply and demand in the fertility field have allowed criminals to quietly explore this hidden black industrial chain.
The surrogacy industry chain consists of the demand side, surrogacy companies, egg donors, surrogate mothers, doctors who perform surrogacy operations, and hospitals that issue birth certificates. In this industry chain, surrogacy is a clearly marked transaction, and surrogate mothers are regarded as ” “Walking uterus”, the child is a “commodity” created.
The surrogacy demand side is huge and the composition is complicated, including some infertile families, LGBT families, and families who have lost only one. According to the Red Song Society, the number of homosexuals in China is between 56 million and 84 million. The deputy secretary-general of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference once stated that my country’s “family losing one’s only family” increased by 76,000 each year, which has exceeded 1 million. Due to the high demand, surrogate mothers are in short supply.
As an industry wandering on the edge of morality and ethics, “supply exceeds demand” has also bred a “black market.”
The illegal income generated by the “black market of surrogacy” is staggeringly high. According to a report in the Legal Daily, an insider said that surrogacy clients spent hundreds of thousands or even millions of yuan, but only 100,000 or 200,000 yuan reached the hands of the surrogate mother. It is conceivable that the surrogacy agency will earn a high price difference. According to a report by Tencent.com, a person who had worked in a surrogacy agency revealed that “a single business will have a profit of 30% to 60%.” If a minimum of 650,000 yuan is used, a 30% profit of a single business At first, if a surrogacy agency conducts 1,000 surrogacy services, the profit will be at least 10 million yuan.
Ethically, how to protect the human rights of surrogate mothers and their children is the focus of discussion.
For the sake of their own needs and the surrogacy agency to make huge profits, both parties jointly squeeze the weak in the chain, disregard dignity, and materialize life. This is the part that global public opinion is most concerned about.
For example, the reproductive rights and living conditions of women, especially the economically disadvantaged surrogate mothers, are constantly becoming people’s deep concern. Shi Jiayou, a professor at the School of Law of Renmin University of China, once said that paid surrogacy is a commercialization of a person, which may be suspected of infringing upon human dignity and also involves infringing upon the right to physical integrity. Surrogate mothers may be forced or deceived into surrogacy, and it is difficult for intermediaries to fully inform the surrogate mother of the risks of surrogacy and the health condition of the demander. Surrogate companies attract customers under the slogan of “Include success and gender.” In order to ensure the embryo implantation rate, surrogate mothers need to constantly inject and take medicine. If the gender of the fetus does not meet the requirements of the customer, it will be forcibly knocked out.
For example, the rights of survival and development of surrogate children have also received much attention. Surrogacy materializes the child into a commodity that can be “refunded” at any time, jeopardizing basic human rights. Once a child is born with defects, cases of being abandoned are everywhere. The media once reported a case similar to Zheng Shuang’s intention to abandon the child. When talking about the client’s temporary repentance of not wanting a child, the person in charge of a surrogacy agency said that “repentance should be said earlier, and we will all get the baby in the stomach sooner.”
Currently, being aware of the ethical issues and possible social harms involved in surrogacy, most countries absolutely prohibit surrogacy or have many restrictions on it. In countries such as Germany, Iceland and Finland, any form of surrogacy is illegal; in countries such as Japan and Brazil, commercial surrogacy is illegal; countries such as Canada, Australia, the Netherlands, Belgium and other countries only allow unpaid altruistic surrogacy, while commercial surrogacy is Most areas of Australia will be considered a crime. Israel passed legislation to legalize surrogacy in 1996, but strictly supervises it. It is the first country in the world to implement government control and supervision of surrogacy procedures. Each surrogacy contract needs to be directly approved by the Israeli government, and the commission designated by the government will only allow Israeli citizens with the same religious beliefs to apply for surrogacy arrangements.
Some countries where surrogacy was legal have also begun to legislate. In India, commercial surrogacy was once legal. In this “baby factory”, surrogate mothers have been squeezed and suffered inhumane treatment and died frequently. To solve this problem, the Indian government passed a bill in 2015 to prohibit commercial surrogacy. Thailand, once regarded as a “surrogacy factory”, also promulgated the “Surrogacy Law” in 2015, prohibiting the commercialization of surrogacy.
However, surrogacy is still legal in some countries. Surrogacy is legal in Ukraine and is not regulated as a commercial activity, and the country’s laws have clear regulations for the parents of the child. There are also 11 “surrogacy friendly states” in the United States. These states either have laws that allow and recognize surrogacy or tend to support surrogacy in most of their judgments on surrogacy.
The 2020 epidemic has once again boosted the domestic surrogacy industry, an underground industry. Due to the epidemic’s restrictions on international travel, users seeking surrogacy overseas are blocked, and the underground surrogacy market has been stimulated in China. According to The Paper, “Domestic surrogacy agencies have significantly increased orders, and fees such as egg donor compensation and surrogate mother commissions have also risen. The company has even launched 880,000 packages that successfully include gender.”
5. When the epidemic broke out suddenly, press the pause button for cross-border assisted reproduction
But on the other hand, under the impact of the epidemic, cross-border assisted reproduction has pressed the pause button.
This industry was originally aimed at cross-border business, and most companies 100% of their business content is cross-border services. Now that international communication is blocked, it is undoubtedly a painful one.
In this extraordinary period, the high price of air tickets, coupled with the high cost of isolation, has deterred users who choose cost-effective routes such as Thailand and Eastern Europe. It is not only the travel expenses that allow users to retreat, but also the long isolation period. Among the many cases visited by 36Kr, the long and difficult isolation period is the primary reason hindering users from signing up. The issue of visas also brings great difficulties to companies, requiring a lot of communication with the embassy, and visas can only be obtained through “emergency medical treatment”. “This is not possible for a wide range of users, so now we can only be regular customers who have signed up before,” a cross-border assisted reproduction company told 36Kr.
With the improvement of the domestic epidemic situation, companies turned their attention to the country, trying to find a way out.
Taimei Yisheng, which originally targeted Thailand, the United States, Russia and other routes, is switching to the domestic reproductive hospital route. Co-founder Xiao Liang said, “We have helped some clients to be referred to Shanghai Red House, Zhejiang Run Run Shaw, Hunan Xiangya and other first-tier hospitals. The number of new clients has increased significantly since the second half of 2020, mainly due to the backlog of six months. Affected by the improvement of the epidemic situation, individual customers began to recover. Many individual customers have been prepared for a long time and anxiously. Under the influence of various pressures, they started to consult and negotiate more proactively. At present, it should be restored to 70% of the customer volume before the epidemic.” As for the customer unit price However, Taimei Yisheng believes that domestic medical expenses are actually similar to many overseas routes, and the food and lodging expenses paid by users in first-tier cities are actually close to the Thai route. In terms of domestic business, another idea is to extend the service link, which is more like the business scope of traditional confinement clubs and health management companies.
Users must make meticulous medical preparations before testing tubes and freezing eggs. The epidemic has prolonged the preparation cycle, which will bring pressure to users. Therefore, although the situation is unclear, user needs are still strong. In announcing its 2020 interim results, Jinxin Fertility stated: “In terms of domestic business, it has recovered rapidly since February 2020 and has returned to the same period last year in June. In terms of US business, the impact of travel restrictions on international patients continues. , But the local patients in the United States have returned to the same period last year.”
Sixth, artificial womb-scenes in science fiction movies will become reality
Taking into account the special population who cannot get pregnant and giving birth, unpaid surrogacy, also known as altruistic surrogacy, is a possible development direction, but it needs to be gradually opened up under strict supervision based on sound laws and regulations. With the further development of assisted reproductive technology, “artificial uterus” will become the gospel of this group of people.
In 1923, the British biologist Haldane conducted an in-depth study of the artificial uterus for the first time. He was also one of the first to propose that an egg can be fertilized outside the uterus. After that, the whole society has debated the topic of artificial uterus for decades. Proponents believe that artificial uterus can liberate women from pregnancy, separate sex and reproduction, and at the same time benefit infertile people and save premature babies; opponents believe that the development of artificial uterus will classify humans as “reformed” And the “unreformed” subgroup, forming a deformed eugenics.
Despite the controversy at the level of public opinion, scientists and medical scientists from all over the world have been tirelessly exploring the field of artificial uterus, and the technology of outsourcing part of the pregnancy process to artificial devices is making continuous progress.
A mature artificial uterus must have the same or similar biological natural uterus and all the conditions for gestating a fetus. In addition to the need for amniotic fluid, the artificial uterus must meet at least two conditions of a natural uterus. One is to have an endometrium, and the other is to form a placenta after the fertilized egg is implanted in the endometrium to satisfy the nutrition and oxygen between the mother and the fetus. Supply and exchange. The amniotic fluid of the artificial uterus must also have exactly the same elements as the amniotic fluid of the natural uterus. For example, the amniotic fluid contains a variety of nutrients and growth factors that can promote the growth of the fetus. In addition to water and electrolytes, it also includes protein, carbohydrates, fat, antibiotics, and Urea. In addition, artificial amniotic fluid should also provide protection and shock absorption for the fetus.
In 2017, Philadelphia Children’s Hospital built an artificial uterus. They placed premature lambs in the amniotic sac and raised them for four weeks. In the artificial environment of the amniotic sac, the sheep embryo gradually develops from a pink, alien-shaped life form into an animal that can breathe and swallow.
In March 2019, researchers in Australia and Japan succeeded in making a severely premature lamb survive for 5 days in an artificial environment outside the womb. This lamb is equivalent to a 24-week-old human baby. The research leader said in a report: “In the field of artificial placenta, we have successfully broken the ‘4-minute mark of a 1-mile long run’.”
In July 2020, the Wake Forest Institute of Regenerative Medicine announced that the “artificial uterus” repaired by bioengineering technology allowed rabbits to give birth to surviving offspring.
On December 28, 2020, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University announced that my country’s first artificial uterine fetal sheep in vitro culture was successful in this hospital.
With the further development of artificial womb technology, scenes in science fiction movies will become reality. For those who are forced to choose surrogacy, artificial uterus technology provides a new outlet. It will not be too far to see the day when the exit is bright.
Picture from Pixabay
7. The future of assisted reproduction
36Kr believes that in the long run, it is imperative for the country to clean up surrogacy agencies, and the chaos of surrogacy will eventually be eliminated.
For assisted reproduction startups, the legal forbidden zone is a high-voltage line that should not be touched.
In fact, my country’s law enforcement and regulatory agencies are continuously increasing the special rectification of the exposed surrogacy market. In 2015, in order to maintain normal family planning order and focus on solving outstanding problems of surrogacy, the National Health and Family Planning Commission and other 12 departments established a national special action leading group and office for combating surrogacy, and jointly formulated the “Working Plan for Special Action against Surrogacy.” In 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission and other 12 departments jointly formulated the “Notice on Establishing a Long-term Working Mechanism for Investigating and Punishing Violations of the Application of Human Assisted Reproductive Technology” to severely crack down on illegal semen collection, illegal egg collection, and “surrogacy”. Irregularities. In 2019, the National Health Commission formulated the “Measures for Random Inspection of Assisted Reproductive Technology”, one of the key inspection contents is the implementation of surrogacy or participation in the implementation of surrogacy.
After the Zheng Shuang incident was exposed, Chang An Jian, the Central Political and Legal Committee, made a comment, “Zheng Shuang’s surrogacy and abandonment of surrogacy: taking advantage of legal loopholes, this is by no means innocent.” The Central Committee of the Communist Youth League also stated that “my country prohibits any form of surrogacy, and surrogacy and abandonment are even more important. Violating social ethics and public order and good customs. No one can challenge the bottom line of value and be above the law.” The Zheng Shuang incident allowed the black industry to be disclosed under the sun. In the future, relevant laws and regulations are bound to be further improved to strengthen supervision and crackdown on surrogacy chaos and black intermediaries.
It should be believed that in the future assisted reproduction will walk in the sun, and black surrogacy and black intermediaries in the gray zone will have nowhere to hide. When I look back, I hope that the social discussion caused by the Zheng Shuang incident will not only leave behind gossip after dinner, but also hope that the public can have a more intimate understanding of the relationship between medical technology and medical ethics. Medical technology is a matter of life and death, and because it has a huge influence on society, we should keep it in awe, let alone abuse it. Ethics and ethics are the stabilizers of society. Using medical technology to improve people’s livelihood and create social value on the basis of adhering to ethical relationships is the real “science and technology for good.”