Dengue: types, symptoms and treatment

Dengue: types, symptoms and treatment


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THE dengue is a viral infectious disease endemic in Brazil transmitted by the female mosquito Aedes aegypti, whose sting can also pass the zika virus and chikungunya. In 2016, Brazil experienced the largest dengue epidemic in its history, with 1.9 million cases.

  • Types of dengue

  • Dengue transmission

  • Symptoms of dengue

  • Dengue treatment

    • Use of paracetamol

  • Hemorrhagic dengue

  • Dengue prevention

    • Dengue vaccine

Types of dengue

The dengue virus has four subtypes, which means, consequently, that the disease has four different forms. Currently, all forms of dengue are in circulation in the country after type 4 reappears in 2010, after 28 years with no record of cases. Contrary to what is imagined, hemorrhagic dengue is not a subtype of dengue, but one of the ways in which the disease can present itself in any subtype. In addition to it, there is the framework of classic dengue, inapparent infection (asymptomatic) and shock syndrome (very rare and dangerous).

Dengue transmission

Dengue is transmitted by mosquito bites Aedes aegypti infected by the virus. It is worth mentioning that only females of the species can transmit the disease to humans.

Symptoms of dengue

The symptoms of classic dengue are High fever (maximum 40 ° C) for up to three days, body aches and behind the eyes, fatigue and indisposition. In general, the symptoms disappear spontaneously after the fifth day. There is no risk of death of the patient in the case of classic dengue.

Dengue treatment

Currently, there is no specific treatment against dengue. Because of this, the therapy is done through the control and combat of symptoms for relief of bodily pain and reduction of fever, mainly.

Use of paracetamol

THE paracetamol is one of the substances, alongside dipyrone, most recommended for combating dengue. On the other hand, aspirin should not be used due to the risk of bleeding. In addition, it is essential that the patient remains very hydrated during recovery and try to rest as much as possible.

Hemorrhagic dengue

THE hemorrhagic dengue it is the most dangerous form of the disease and can cause the death of the patient. In addition to the classic symptoms of the disease, this modality bleeding through the mouth, gums and nose. At the first sign of bleeding, combined with other manifestations, it is necessary to seek medical advice. In some cases, the patient needs to be admitted for follow-up and intravenous hydration.

Dengue prevention

The best way to prevent the occurrence of dengue is to fight mosquito larvae Aedes aegypti. For this, it is necessary to clean and empty containers present at home that can accumulate water. It is in the still water that the female of the Aedes lays its eggs for reproduction. See how to fight dengue in just 10 minutes a week.

Dengue vaccine

In December 2015, Anvisa National Health Surveillance (Anvisa) released the production and commercialization of the first dengue vaccine. Developed by the French laboratory Sanofi-Pasteur, the product is already available in private clinics, but its high cost prevents the adoption by the Ministry of Health, which invests in the formulation of a Brazilian vaccine. Already released in other countries, the French dengue vaccine has effectiveness close to 70% and should only be taken by people between 9 and 45 years old.

Photo: © nechaevkon – Shutterstock.com

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