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[Có thể bạn chưa biết] How dangerous is radiation?


When we hear "radiation", we often think of big explosions and scary mutations, but that's just a part. Radiation is also a phenomenon we encounter everyday like rainbows or X-rays. So what is radiation really and need to be so worried about its impact?




The answer begins with a correct understanding, radiation and describes two completely different phenomena: electromagnetic radiation and nuclear radiation (radioactivity).



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Electromagnetic radiation

This is energy including electric interaction and magnetic field oscillating in space. The faster the wave oscillates (the shorter the wavelength), the greater the wave energy. On the low-energy side of the electromagnetic spectrum are visible radio waves, infrared rays and light. On the higher side there are ultraviolet rays, X-rays and gamma rays.



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Modern society is operated through electromagnetic reception and broadcasting. We can send email by radio or diagnose the disease with X-ray images, even visible by light.



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Nuclear radiation

Derived from the atomic nucleus, atoms are considered to be stable if their nuclear force is strong enough to resist large repulsive forces from the environment and retain bonds in atoms.



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However, a number of neutron and proton combinations, called unstable isotopes, are easily broken and dispersed or material or energy is called nuclear radiation to achieve a more stable state.



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Nuclear radiation originates from nature like Radon, a gas released from the ground. Even bananas contain a small amount of potassium radioisotopes. We also refine natural radioactive ores to supply fuel for nuclear power plants. People are living in a radiation-filled world, so what should we do to avoid its dangerous harms?



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Danger level

Not all radiation is dangerous, radiation becomes dangerous when the electron in the atom is pushed away from its orbit called ionizing radiation, the term ion used for atoms has been lost or increased. Add electrons.



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All atomic radiation is ionized, while for electromagnetic radiation, only high-energy ionized radiation includes gamma rays, high-energy X-rays and ultraviolet rays.



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This process can devastate DNA if exposed to living organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to apply sunscreen when going to sea to avoid ultraviolet rays and to be more cautious when taking x-rays, doctors often cover body parts without testing.



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On the other hand, mobile or microwave uses low-level radiation in the radiation spectrum, so there is no risk of ionization and harm when used. The greatest risk of health damage when the body is exposed to large amounts of ionizing radiation is called acute exposure. Acute exposure exceeds the body's inherent ability to restore itself, which can lead to cancer, cell dysfunction and even death.



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Scientists compared ion radiation exposure with a unit called sievert. Acute exposure equivalent to 1 svert will cause nausea for an hour and 4 sieverts can be fatal. However, daily human radiation exposure is much smaller.



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Every day people are still exposed to small amounts of ion radiation, either from natural or artificial sources. Each year, each person receives 6.2 milisievert of radiation from a variety of sources, about a third coming from Radon gas.



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We live in a radiation-filled world but most of those radiation are not ionized. For ionized radiation, we often have very little exposure and if we check the level of Radon in the home and apply sunscreen will help reduce health hazards.



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Marie Curie, one of the leaders in radiation research, summed up the following: "We are only afraid of things that we cannot explain, so study and clarify them so that we no longer have to scared again! "



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