Pregnancy risk factors
The risk factors listed below increase both the incidence of complications during pregnancy and in future pregnancies. There are three major groups of risk factors or causes of high-risk pregnancies.
The modifying factors are those that do not necessarily cause a high-risk pregnancy but represent an additional risk. Among them are certain social background (women under 15 or over 40, BMI under 17 or over 35, short stature, distance from health centers, lack of prenatal care, use of alcohol, tobacco or drugs). Also modifying factors are the unfavorable obstetric history, such as repeated abortions (more than three), fetal losses in previous pregnancies, birth defects or congenital anomalies, delayed intrauterine growth and premature birth.
Chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders (diabetes, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, obesity), blood clotting disorders, kidney disease, immune disorders, mental disorders, cancer, history of organ transplantation, sexually transmitted diseases and other infections, tropical diseases or abnormalities of the reproductive system are all medical causes for high-risk pregnancies.
Eclampsia and pre-eclampsia, multiple mono-chorionic pregnancies (one placenta for two fetuses), premature rupture of the amniotic sac, threat of premature delivery, poorly controlled gestational diabetes, fetal growth retardation, obstetric cholestasis, fetal malformations, amniotic fluid changes maternal-fetal infections or blood group incompatibility between mother and baby are the internal causes of pregnancy that raise risks.
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