Causes and treatment of gynecomastia

Causes and treatment of gynecomastia


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Frequent phenomenon, the gynecomastia it is defined by a hypertrophy of the breasts among men due to the excessive development of the mammary glands. The disorder can occur in one or both breasts and can also be associated with excess fat in the region.

  • Differentiated diagnoses

  • Causes of gynecomastia

    • Pathological causes

    • Iatrogenic causes

    • Physiological causes

  • Gynecomastia treatment

  • Gynecomastia surgery

Differentiated diagnoses

When breast hypertrophy is caused by accumulation of subcutaneous fat, the condition is called adipomastia, or pseudo gynecomastia. The best way to differentiate the two disorders is with a touch exam. While the breast in adipomastia is soft or gelatinous, it is hard in glandular cases.

Most of the time, the cause of adipomastia is the overweight or obesity of the patient and the diagnosis can be confirmed through clinical examination or mammography. The treatment of adipomastia is done through liposuction.

Causes of gynecomastia

Pathological causes

Possible causes in this case are kidney disease (kidney failure, kidney cancer), thyroid, liver cirrhosis, tumors in the testicles, adrenal gland, pituitary and lung, Klinefelter syndrome, Addison’s disease and acromegaly.

Iatrogenic causes

The use of certain medications they can cause gynecomastia, cases of drugs that contain estrogen, antiandrogens and amphetamines. In addition, drugs like marijuana and anabolic steroids can also lead to overgrowth of glandular tissue.

Physiological causes

During puberty, gynecomastia is common and is due to a hormonal disorder typical of this period of youth development. Cases of physiological gynecomastia tend to be resolved in two or three years. The aging process also affects hormonal balance, lowering testosterone production, and can cause gynecomastia of this nature.

Gynecomastia treatment

In cases of gynecomastia, the most important is treat its causes. Disorders caused by the use of medicines, for example, require the exchange or interruption (when possible) of the medication. In pathological cases, a hormonal treatment or disease that affects the patient are the most suitable measures.

Gynecomastia surgery

Along with treating the causes of breast enlargement, the patient can also perform a plastic surgery for breast reduction. In general, any patient can undergo the procedure, but it is recommended that teenagers wait until the end of puberty to perform the surgery as there is a risk that the problem will reoccur.

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