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Lifestyle is paramount to prevent Alzheimer’s

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Emotional aspects also impact the onset of the disease, according to experts.

(CCM Health) — Currently, more than 5 million people suffer from Alzheimer’s. To prevent these numbers from growing, scientists are investing in lifestyle-based prevention.

During the Alzheimer’s Association’s International Conference, which took place in Los Angeles, researchers argued that people should dedicate themselves to learning a new language or playing musical instruments, for example.

This concept of cognitive reserve, developed by the American Yaakov Stern, professor of neuropsychology and head of the Cognitive Neurosciences Division at Columbia University in New York, refers to the way the brain deals with damage, such as the characteristic degeneration of Alzheimer’s .

“These cognitive trainings should be introduced in schools and all adults and seniors should include them in their routine. There are people who think that playing dominoes or doing crosswords is rubbish, but they are challenges for cognition”, explains neuropsychologist Marcella Bianca, who works with cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive reserve research in Brazil. She even participated in the conference. “Depression, anxiety and stress are associated with dementia,” he says.

Another study supports this thesis. Conducted by the University of Exeter, UK, he found that the risk of dementias is 32% lower in people who, although carrying genes associated with these diseases, have a healthy lifestyle.

“Our results are exciting, as they show that we can act to try to compensate for genetics,” observes Elzbieta Kuma, a researcher at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Exeter and a co-author of the study.

One of the protective factors against dementias identified by researchers is vascular health. It can be achieved through exercise, a low animal fat diet, and prevention of diabetes and hypertension.

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Foods that make you sleepy

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Staying awake during the day after a bad night’s sleep, staying up all night to study, work or even enjoy a party. There are several reasons to want take or reduce sleep and certain foods can help achieve that goal. For this they need to be high in caffeine. Check out what these foods and drinks are.

  • Caffeine Action
  • drinks that make you sleepy
  • Foods that make you sleepy
  • Caffeine Risks

Caffeine Action

THE caffeine it is an alkaloid substance that acts fundamentally by inhibiting the action of adenosine receptors. Adenosine in turn is a neurotransmitter that controls body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure. By blocking these actions, caffeine causes its reverse effect, causing neural stimulation and keeping the person in a state of alert and, consequently, without sleep or signs of physical and mental fatigue.

drinks that make you sleepy

As the name implies, caffeine is present in high concentration in coffee. Beyond, black tea, cola and guarana sodas and yerba mate drinks also have a good dose of caffeine and make you sleepy. Finally, the energetic industrialized products have high concentrations of caffeine. In some cases, even bigger than in coffee.

Foods that make you sleepy

Despite having lower concentrations of caffeine, some foods are also able to help promote sleep loss. Are they chocolate, pepper and ginger.

Caffeine Risks

Caffeine is quite effective in decreasing the urge to sleep. However, the use of these products, especially beverages, is often dangerous and should not be done because caffeine increases heart rate and causes stress and anxiety. On the other hand, people with insomnia should avoid these foods, especially at night, so as not to suffer from their effects.

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Ingrown hair: what to do?

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Especially in the summer, the hair growth is more accelerated due to the heat and this condition can generate situations such as ingrown hair. More common in those who shave with wax or razor, the ingrown hair it can turn into something embarrassing and unpleasant to a person, causing a reddish appearance on the skin.

  • Definition of ingrown hair

  • Causes of ingrown hair

    • Curly hair

    • Razor shaving

    • Depilatory wax

    • Friction of the epidermis

  • How to treat ingrown hairs

  • How to avoid ingrown hairs

Definition of ingrown hair

An ingrown hair occurs when it leaves the follicle, but does not break the dermis, growing under the skin. This condition generates inflammation in the skin and even infections, as well as complications that can even lead to the appearance of pus and scars.

Causes of ingrown hair

Curly hair

Curly hairs that grow in corkscrew shape they cannot penetrate and skin and therefore have a greater tendency to get stuck.

Razor shaving

The double blade razor first removes the outside of the hair. Thus, when it grows again, it does not follow the correct path, entering the skin.

Depilatory wax

After waxing, hair can happen don’t grow in the right direction.

Friction of the epidermis

When the skin is subjected to some kind of friction, the hair may become stuck in its back, especially on drier skins.

How to treat ingrown hairs

The treatment of ingrown hairs can be done by a dermatologist, who will make your extraction. In case of inflammation, it may be necessary to ingest antibiotics orally or dermally. Techniques such as laser hair removal also permanently eliminate hair. Extreme situations of abscess or severe infection may even require surgery.

How to avoid ingrown hairs

To reduce inflammation by ingrown hair, you can use a antiseptic. Shaving as little as possible and using razors with more blades are also useful measures, in addition to massaging the area with gloves specialized in removing ingrown hairs. Using creams based on vitamin A and emollients is also a measure that facilitates hair birth more easily.

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Aerophagia: causes, symptoms and treatment

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THE aerophagy it is part of the benign digestive disorders that can cause discomfort in a person’s daily life. This is because this physiological phenomenon generates large amounts of air in the digestive tract, especially during meals.

  • Definition of aerophagia

  • Causes of aerophagia

  • Symptoms of aerophagia

  • Aerophagia treatment

Definition of aerophagia

Aerophagia is a condition that can worsen in the presence of some diseases, such as abdominal swelling, mild gastrointestinal disturbance or complications in the area around the nose and pharynx. Aerophagia is a term that derives from the Greek and literally means ‘to ingest air’. It can, in many situations, create embarrassment, although it is not serious. It is essential not to confuse aerophagia with gastroesophageal reflux, which generates similar symptoms. In case of burning, a medical consultation is essential.

Causes of aerophagia

Coming from an inadequate diet, related to the excessive consumption of some foods and drinks, such as fizzy and sugary foods, aerophagia is also related to the fact of eating too quickly, which favors the intake of a large amount of air. Anxiety problems – especially those caused by stress – are among the risk factors.

Symptoms of aerophagia

Aerophagia manifests itself with a feeling of heaviness in the stomach and belching, which may be accompanied by flatulence, which are the ways to alleviate the problems caused by excess air in digestion. As the symptoms of aerophagia are very similar to those of gastroesophageal reflux, a medical consultation is decisive in case of doubts or worsening of symptoms, with the appearance of burns, for example.

Aerophagia treatment

Abdominal massages can relieve the symptoms of this disorder, as well as infusions with medicinal plants. Some medications can also minimize discomfort, however, those who regularly suffer from the problem must have their origins analyzed, assessing the quality of their food and treating anxiety and stress problems.

The most recommended for those suffering from aerophagia is to adopt a correct diet, chew slowly and avoid foods that favor the appearance of these symptoms, such as fizzy drinks, sweets, chewing gums, etc. If aerophagia is derived from stress, it is essential to control anxiety by adopting appropriate therapy or by practicing physical and relaxation activities. Once isolated and treated the cause of the problem, the symptoms should disappear spontaneously.

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Arterial hypertension: ideal values

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Arterial hypertension refers to the chronic increase in blood pressure. Most people with high blood pressure are unaware of the condition, as the disease progresses gradually over years. Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease in the world and, in many countries, it is the main cause of mortality.

  • Blood pressure

  • Arterial hypertension values

  • Systolic blood pressure

  • Diastolic blood pressure

  • Normal blood pressure

  • Low blood pressure

  • High blood pressure

  • Difference between men and women

  • Causes of hypertension

Blood pressure

Blood pressure is the blood pressure, pumped by the heart, against the walls of the arteries. Blood pressure is the force that allows blood to circulate through the vessels. In case of hypertension, blood pressure is very high and the heart ends up making more effort to pump blood.

Arterial hypertension values

In arterial hypertension, blood pressure values ​​are abnormally high. Blood pressure breaks down into two values: blood pressure systolic (the maximum) and blood pressure diastolic (the minimum). Thus, blood pressure is expressed in values ​​indicated in millimeters of mercury.

Systolic blood pressure

Systolic blood pressure, the highest, is the value of blood pressure during cardiac systole, that is, at the moment of ventricular contraction to pump blood. The upper number of a blood pressure measurement corresponds to the systolic blood pressure. For example, for a 12 by 8 pressure, the systolic pressure is equal to the value 12.

Diastolic blood pressure

Diastolic blood pressure, the lowest, is the blood pressure value during cardiac diastole, that is, at the moment of ventricular relaxation. It is the pressure carried out between two contractions, when the heart relaxes and becomes full of blood. For a measurement of blood pressure 12 by 8, we have that the systolic pressure is equal to the value 8.

Normal blood pressure

Blood pressure is normal when its value is less than 14 by 9 or, in technical terms, 140 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) per 90 mmHg.

Low blood pressure

A reduction in blood pressure to values below 90 mmHg of maximum characterizes a picture of hypotension.

High blood pressure

Systolic blood pressure should not exceed 15 and diastolic pressure, 9. Hypertension is defined when the values ​​are greater than 15 by 9.

Difference between men and women

Blood pressure is usually higher in men than in women, especially menopausal women. It tends to increase with age, due to the elasticity of the arteries. About 70% of hypertensive patients are over 60 years old, while less than 20% of patients are under 20 years old.

Causes of hypertension

Blood pressure increases by stressful situations, to then decrease when the person calms down. In cases of pregnancy, blood pressure decreases and then reestablishes with the birth of the child. Its values ​​also decrease in resting situations, while a lot of noise can increase it. The consumption of sugar or drinks that contain it can raise blood pressure.

Overweight and obesity are also important risk factors, as well as an salt-rich food. Physical activity or sports can increase your heart rate, also increasing your blood pressure. During sleep, the tension decreases, while the hypertension of the white coat corresponds to an increase in the pressure generated by the stress of a medical consultation.

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Metrorrhagia: bleeding between periods

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THE metrorrhagia it is a more or less severe loss of blood and of uterine origin, which arises outside the periods of menstruation of the woman.

  • Symptoms of metrorrhagia

  • Causes of metrorrhagia

  • Pregnancy and metrorrhagia

  • Advices

Symptoms of metrorrhagia

The drained blood can present several aspects: red color, darker tones, the presence or absence of clots, among other characteristics, which can extend for more days. If not treated in time, the condition can lead to cases of anemia.

Causes of metrorrhagia

Many metrorrhages are linked to causes without gravity, such as hormonal imbalances, fibroids, uterine polyps, coagulation problems or endometrial abnormalities. However, some malignant tumors they can also be the cause of these bleeds, requiring consultation with the gynecologist when they occur.

Metrorrhagia that occurs before puberty or after menopause should not be considered normal. This is because the condition that appears at puberty is usually associated with heavy menstruation, which affects 2% to 5% of adolescents in the first two years after menarche.

Pregnancy and metrorrhagia

Metrorrhagia is common in the first quarter pregnancy and affects one in four women at the beginning of pregnancy. In any case, a consultation with a specialist is essential, since bleeding can also be an indication of some complication of pregnancy such as the development of the fetus outside the uterus, premature displacement of the placenta, extrauterine pregnancy, abortion or beginning of labor.

Advices

Always consult the doctor in case of bleeding outside the menstrual period.

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Magnetic resonance imaging: what is it?

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THE MRI it is a radiological examination available to doctors and patients, as well as traditional radiography, tomography or ultrasound. The analysis made by means of magnetic resonance aims to study the organs of the human body in a precise way until reaching a diagnosis.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging

    • Principle of magnetic resonance imaging

    • Magnetic resonance imaging technique

    • MRI equipment

    • Where to do an MRI scan

  • Resonance application areas

    • Tumor diagnosis and monitoring

  • How a resonance is performed

  • Precautions

  • Contraindications

Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging uses a technique based on the atoms of some molecules under the action of radiofrequency.

Principle of magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging uses modifications generated by a magnetic field, sent by the machine, in the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms present in the organism (nuclear magnetic resonance). This test is painless, non-invasive and does not use X-rays.

Magnetic resonance imaging technique

The technique involves the use of a very strong magnet that generates a magnetic field responsible for generating an action on the hydrogen ions existing in all the water in the body.

MRI equipment

This device consists of a tunnel with a magnet that revolves around the lying patient. It weighs tons and resembles a thick cylinder with a hole in the middle. A computer reconstitutes the images obtained and generates 3D quality definitions. Therefore, the patient must remain immobile in the equipment, which, in operation, can generate a lot of noise.

Where to do an MRI scan

Magnetic resonance imaging allows the visualization of some tissues not detected on the radiography, such as ligaments, central nervous system, muscles, heart and some tumors. It can also generate images of blood vessels with contrast. The resonance cuts in several planes: horizontal, vertical or transverse.

Resonance application areas

MRI is an examination that allows the visualization of numerous organs of the body, mainly the brain, spinal cord, spine, joints, urinary tract, kidneys, ovaries, uterus, prostate, sinuses, liver, abdomen, chest , arteries, etc.

Tumor diagnosis and monitoring

MRI is useful not only to assist in the diagnosis of tumors, but also to monitor their evolution, whether during or after treatment, preventing relapses.

How a resonance is performed

As stated above, the patient is lying on a kind of stretcher inside the machinery, which resembles a thick tube. Afterwards, the patient usually listens to music to minimize the loud noise from the equipment. The important thing here is that the patient is completely immobile.

A bell allows the patient to call the doctor from inside the equipment and suspend the procedure in case of problems. Monitored by a doctor and a radiology technician, the test can be performed, in some cases, with the help of medications that combat anxiety and relieve the feeling of claustrophobia. In case of contrast-enhanced MRI, the test should be done on an empty stomach and may last longer than a CT scan.

Precautions

Any metallic or magnetic object, such as keys, credit card or coins, must be deposited outside the examination room for the procedure to be performed.

Contraindications

Magnetic resonance imaging is not a dangerous test and can even be repeated several times. The only precaution is to avoid its performance in patients with a pacemaker or other type of heart valve that contains metal parts, in addition to brain clips and prostheses.

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Aspirin: acetylsalicylic acid

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THE acetylsalicylic acid it is also known as aspirin, the first brand ever sold. With antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties, it is used to lower fever, reduce pain and inflammation, in addition to improving blood circulation. Its sale does not require a prescription, but it represents risks and the drug is not recommended for some types of pain. Ingestion of this medication can cause gastric problems and should be avoided until the third trimester of pregnancy or in case of ulcers.

  • Definition of acetylsalicylic acid

  • How Acetylsalicylic Acid Works

  • Anti-inflammatory action

  • Action time

  • When you should not take aspirin

  • Aspirin during pregnancy

  • Allergy to acetylsalicylic acid

  • Daily intake of aspirin

  • Adverse effects

  • How to take acetylsalicylic acid

Definition of acetylsalicylic acid

Acetylsalicylic acid is an organic molecule, which gives some plant organisms an aromatic power. It is present in some fruits and mushrooms. Its use can also be for antiseptic purposes or as a food preservative. Its analgesic action is also used in dermatological treatments against acne and warts.

How Acetylsalicylic Acid Works

First, aspirin works as an anti-inflammatory. It regulates the secretions of prostaglandin – a substance produced when the body is attacked. By regulating this substance, aspirin contains inflammation, reducing pain and fever. The action of acetylsalicylic acid comes from stomach absorption and diffusion of molecules throughout the body.

Anti-inflammatory action

Aspirin has an anti-inflammatory principle. Therefore, it is recommended to eat 1 to 3 grams per day, depending on the problem.

Action time

The duration of action of this medication varies between 30 and 60 minutes, depending on its formula.

When you should not take aspirin

This medicine should not be taken in cases of digestive problems in the stomach and duodenal ulcer, as well as if the patient has bleeding disorders or problems in the liver, kidneys and heart.

Aspirin during pregnancy

In case of pregnancy or lactation, it is not recommended to take acetylsalicylic acid without medical advice. The drug should not be taken from the beginning to the sixth month of pregnancy.

Allergy to acetylsalicylic acid

This medication should not be used in case of allergy to aspirin or another medication of the same class (such as ibuprofen). People with asthma or nasal polyps should also not take acetylsalicylic acid, due to the risk of Widal syndrome. To avoid an allergic reaction or overdosage, care is recommended when using the medication, as well as attention to its active ingredients. Aspirin can interact with several medications such as anticoagulants, FANS or remedies for gout. In such cases, medical monitoring is essential.

Daily intake of aspirin

In cases of daily treatment with low-dose aspirin (less than 300 mg) to prevent circulatory problems or cardiovascular accidents, acetylsalicylic acid should not be ingested to relieve pain without medical advice.

Adverse effects

Aspirin increases the risk of bleeding, both in low doses and in long-term treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to inform the doctor in case of surgeries. For the same reasons, aspirin should not be used to treat menstrual pain. Its use should be stopped in case of vomiting with blood, blood in the stool, dark stools or signs of gastrointestinal bleeding, rash or breathing difficulties, dizziness, headache and redness in the ears.

How to take acetylsalicylic acid

Aspirin can be taken in doses of 325 mg, 330 mg, 350 mg, 400 mg, 450 mg, 480 mg, 500 mg or 1,000 mg. The recommended dose varies between 500 mg and 1 g for adults in each dose, which can be repeated every four hours, if necessary. The maximum dose of acetylsalicylic acid is 3 g per day (2 g for the elderly). To avoid the appearance of unwanted effects it is recommended to avoid a dose above the recommended.

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Scleroderma: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

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THE scleroderma it is an autoimmune infection whose origin is unknown. There is localized and systematic scleroderma. Similar to lupus and rheumatoid arthritis in some aspects, scleroderma affects mainly adult women and presents itself in different ways.

  • Definition of scleroderma

    • Diffuse scleroderma

    • Localized scleroderma

    • Plaque scleroderma

    • Systemic scleroderma

  • Scleroderma symptoms

  • Diagnosis of scleroderma

  • Treatment of scleroderma

Definition of scleroderma

Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease that affects, in general, middle-aged women, between 40 and 50 years old. The etymological meaning of this word is “derma dura”, which describes the disease well, characterized by the tightening of the skin. Scleroderma is, in fact, caused by collagen reduction, caused by the presence of antibodies that fight the body’s own cells.

Diffuse scleroderma

Diffuse scleroderma is the most serious form of the disease and is characterized by a thickened skin, especially on the arms, legs, abdomen and face. The patient’s prognosis can be severe if the problem affects the internal organs such as the lungs, heart and intestine. If this happens, the tissue may make the organ’s functioning unfeasible. There is no treatment, but non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids help to reduce symptoms.

Localized scleroderma

If only a single skin tissue is affected, we speak of localized scleroderma. It is characterized by white skin lesions, which can take the form of plaques, lines or small marks on different parts of the body. The diagnosis is obtained by a histological examination. Local cortisone in cream or ointment, vitamin E and avocado oil can alleviate the problem.

Plaque scleroderma

Plaque scleroderma is also a localized form. It is characterized by the formation of round or oval plates in white color in different parts of the body. Its size and number vary according to the patient. They can persist for a few years before they disappear, leaving small scars. The indicated treatment is based on local cortisone.

Systemic scleroderma

This disease can also reach deep tissues, such as internal organs, causing systemic scleroderma. It is characterized as the first symptom of Raynaud’s syndrome, which leaves the fingers extremely cold. There may also be limited or diffuse forms. Treatment based on medications, such as long-term cortisone, is done according to the symptoms.

Scleroderma symptoms

The symptoms of scleroderma are diverse and multiply during the course of the disease. Cases are distinguished according to symptoms. Localized scleroderma, for example, affects only the skin, usually the hands and face, making it harder. Acro-sclerosis or sclerodactyly, also presented as Raynaud’s syndrome, affects only the fingers, causing disturbances in circulation, with pain and cold extremities. The evolution of generalized or systemic scleroderma, which affects several organs, can have different symptoms.

Diagnosis of scleroderma

If scleroderma is suspected, a blood test may be necessary to reveal the presence of autoantibodies. Other tests also show the microscopic vessels of the skin, as well as the skin biopsy, which confirms the diagnosis.

Treatment of scleroderma

There is no treatment to eliminate this disease. Some symptoms, however, can be treated with various medications, such as immunosuppressants or cortisone. Some symptomatic approaches are essential to improve the prognosis of the disease. They can be supplemented by physical therapy to preserve joint mobility.

In parallel, there are other preventive measures, such as quitting smoking, which offers an improvement in symptoms. Controlling weight and exercising regularly also help, in addition to protecting the skin, which is weakened by the disease, both in the cold and in the sun.

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Bursitis: causes, symptoms and treatment

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THE bursitis it is an inflammation of the bursae, small pockets located between two musculoskeletal structures of the joints. The bursae are located on the shoulders, elbows, hands, hips, knees, ankles and feet. They contain synovial fluid and protect joints from external pressure. Usually benign, bursitis can get worse if the affected limb is not put to rest.

  • Definition of bursitis

  • Types of bursitis

  • Symptoms of bursitis

  • Causes of bursitis

  • Risk factors for bursitis

  • Treatment of bursitis

    • Most frequently

    • In severe cases

  • Bursitis has a cure

  • When to see the doctor

Definition of bursitis

Bursitis manifests itself through an inflammation of the pockets that act as a buffer between two tendons, between the skin and a tendon or between bone and tissue. Located at the level of the back, elbows, hands, hips, knees, collarbone or feet, these bags contain synovial fluid and protect joints from pressure.

Types of bursitis

There are several types of bursitis. The most common are at the elbow, back, feet, kneecap, torso, hips or knee.

Symptoms of bursitis

The characteristic symptoms of bursitis are severe pain that worsens without treatment and rest, inflammation, redness and difficulty moving the affected region.

Causes of bursitis

A bursitis can be caused by several factors, such as direct wound on the limb, unusual exercise in the joint, prolonged use of the joint, infection of an injury, arthritis and inadequate preparation for sports.

Risk factors for bursitis

People who have professional activities that require repetitive movement are the most exposed to the problem. Inadequate postures they can also cause bursitis. In addition, hereditary or metabolic factors influence the onset of the disease.

Treatment of bursitis

Most frequently

In milder cases of bursitis, treatment is done with ice application in the affected joint, rest and use of anti-inflammatories and analgesics.

In severe cases

In more severe cases, bursitis can be treated with puncture of synovial fluid and ablation of the bursa. If there is no infection of the affected region, corticosteroids can also be injected. On the other hand, the use of antibiotics is advised if the patient has an infection.

Bursitis has a cure

Bursitis has cure if the treatment is followed correctly. However, it is important to be aware of the cause of the problem, such as inappropriate postures or repetition of movements to prevent the problem from coming back.

When to see the doctor

It is recommended to consult the doctor in any case, especially when the pain and / or inflammation lasts for more than a week, when the discomfort is regular or in situations of violent pain.

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Herniated Disc: Symptoms and Treatment

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THE herniated disc it is a spinal cord injury characterized by the displacement of a part of a vertebral disc. It can be caused by compression of a nerve and causes pain throughout the affected area. In general, the pathology appears in people aged between 30 and 50 years.

  • Definition of herniated disc

  • Herniated Disc Symptoms

  • Herniated Disc Diagnosis

  • Herniated Disc Treatment

    • Herniated Disc Surgery

  • How to prevent herniated discs

Definition of herniated disc

Herniated disc is an infection that affects the disc located between the vertebrae. These discs have the function of amortizing impacts between the bones, minimizing shocks and facilitating the mobility of the spine. They play an important role in the alignment of the vertebrae, and when the hernia arises, we speak of an abnormal condition of a vertebral disc.

Herniated Disc Symptoms

The herniated disc is manifested by severe pain in the affected area, which can extend to a limb irrigated by the same nerve. In some cases, the hernia is asymptomatic, but in general, the pain is located at the lowest vertebral level, especially between the L4 and L5 vertebrae, known as lumbar vertebrae, in addition to an L5 S1 disc protrusion.

The cervical hernia can generate a tingling sensation that starts at the nape of the neck and can extend through the arm. Hernia cases that reach the last lumbar vertebrae generate pain in the region and can extend from the thighs to the toes, encompassing the entire path of the affected nerve.

Herniated Disc Diagnosis

The diagnosis is made from the symptoms that the patient describes, the pain and the location of the problem. Some complementary exams they may be indicated, such as radiography of the spine in the painful region, tomography or magnetic resonance to confirm the condition.

Herniated Disc Treatment

Treatment for herniated discs is based primarily on rest administration and administration of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as infiltrations. Treatment is generally associated with physiotherapy or surgical interventions for more severe cases.

Herniated Disc Surgery

In the absence of improvement, the doctor may operate on the patient affected by the herniated disc. The procedure removes part of the vertebral bone, called the vertebral lamina, releasing the nerve from the hernia compression. Other microsurgical techniques can also reduce pain and are less invasive. However, even with surgery, there are cases where symptoms can persist.

How to prevent herniated discs

Preventive actions prevent the appearance herniated disc. Do not overload your back, practice sports such as swimming or cycling and strengthen the region are some of the measures.

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Clostridium difficile: symptoms and treatment

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THE Clostridium difficile, also known by the acronym CD, is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus type bacterium. It represents the main cause of infectious diarrhea in adults and is responsible for about 20% of diarrhea that occurs when antibiotics are used. It is harmless in people who do not have diseases.

  • Definition of Clostridium difficile

  • Symptoms of Clostridium difficile

  • People at risk

  • Contagion by Clostridium difficile

  • Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile

  • How to avoid Clostridium difficile

  • Treatment of Clostridium difficile

Definition of Clostridium difficile

THE Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that is found in most people and is part of the intestinal flora. When an antibiotic is ingested, it causes the disturbance of this flora and, thus, the CD finds favorable ground for its development in some people. A virulent strain of Clostridium difficile it is the origin of many epidemics in several countries.

Symptoms of Clostridium difficile

THE Clostridium difficile causes diarrhea, usually accompanied by fever and abdominal pain. Blood can also be seen in the stool and, rarely, dehydration of the patient, in addition to inflammation of the colon, called colitis.

People at risk

Immunocompromised people over the age of 65 who recover in the hospital or are debilitated are easily infected with this bacterium. The ingestion of some antibiotics, such as amoxicillin, clindamycin and cephalosporin favors infection and the consequent multiplication of these intestinal bacteria.

Contagion by Clostridium difficile

Contamination arises from hand contact with people infected with diarrhea related to Clostridium difficile, as well as by touching objects contaminated by the bacteria.

Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile

The diagnosis is confirmed by examining the stool, which shows the presence of Clostridium difficile.

How to avoid Clostridium difficile

People infected with Clostridium difficile must be isolated so as not to spread the bacteria to other people. Wearing gloves and long-sleeved shirts is ideal to avoid contagion. The environment must be disinfected with suitable products and the measures must be respected for at least 72 hours after the onset of diarrhea. The hand hygiene of the patient and everyone in contact with him must be strict and, mainly, done only in the bathroom. It is also recommended to apply alcohol to your hands.

Treatment of Clostridium difficile

It is not necessary to administer medication in the mild manifestation of Clostridium difficile, as the symptoms disappear when the patient stops taking antibiotics, which generate this infection. In cases of more severe symptoms, other types of antibiotics may be prescribed after, based on the stool test, the toxin that caused the problem is identified.

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