Bifrost was announced in 2016 with the G71. Valhall is a redesigned version with a lot of changes, promising 30% more energy savings, 30% higher performance density, and also improving the speed of machine learning tasks up to 60%. .
Thus, the G77 core chipsets released at the end of 2019 and 2020 will have 40% higher performance than the previous generation, even though the production process only slightly improves (from 7nm to 7nm generation). The next system is a relatively small change.
To achieve this result, ARM switched the execution model from 4-wide or 8-wide to 16-wide (meanwhile, NVIDIA's GPU is 32-wide, AMD is 64-wide). They are called "warps", similar to a thread on the CPU, ie a G77 kernel will execute twice as much work as a G76 kernel (of course everything is more complicated, here we only need to know that GPU designs with fewer cores from now on will be stronger than before.
ARM has designed surface units (units) that have twice the throughput of those on previous designs.
Cortex-A77 is developed based on A76 design and promises to improve performance by up to 20% despite running at the same clock.
This new A77 kernel incorporates a fourth ALU, increasing the speed of integer execution by up to 50%. It can perform simple tasks (addition / subtraction) in a single cycle and has been improved to perform complex tasks (multiplication) in 2-3 cycles (the old kernel needs 4 cycles). ).
ARM also improves branch prediction accuracy and adds a second prediction port, which helps bring data to the new ALU as quickly as possible. A second AES line is also added to speed up encryption and decoding.
In short, the chipset designs based on ARM's design for graphics (Exynos, Kirin and Helio) will be significantly improved. Qualcomm, which only uses the CPU, will get less improvement, and will have to be cautious when rival chipset designs start catching up with its strong Adreno GPUs.