Photo: Stock Photos – YURY TARANIK / Shutterstock
Without a doubt, the Taj Mahal is one of the most famous monuments in the world. The entire complex, including the famous white mausoleum, a reflective lake and lush gardens, among other buildings, is testament to the cultural sophistication of the Mughal Empire.
Surely many people also know that Taj Mahal is crystallized from a happy love story between an emperor and his wife. It was built between 1631 and 1648 by order of Shah Jahan (1592-1666), the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658. Under his reign, the Mughal Empire reached its zenith. culture and especially the Golden Age of architecture.
With complex architecture and harmonious design, the Taj Mahal is not only the pinnacle of Indian architecture but also the pinnacle of architecture in general. Right now, let designs.vn go through some interesting facts about this world-famous building and the remarkable construction process of a world masterpiece.
5 interesting facts about the Taj Mahal show love and devotion for this complex.
IT IS THE END OF LOVE
During his 30 years of reign, Shah Jahan was known as the cruel, insatiable, ruthless emperor but had a great love for his wife – Mumtaz Mahal (1593-1631).
Prince Khurram, who is hopeful about succeeding the throne, is the son of King Jahangir with many talents: good guitar, good singing, talented in poetic, skillful in martial arts … Khurram, despite being young, is famous for his courage, has great merit in helping his father to suppress the rebellion and to defeat the invaders. The king loves the prince the most of all, giving him the name Shah Jahan (in Persian meaning Lord of the world).
Portrait of Queen Mumtaz Mahal (17th century – 18th century) (Photo: Wikipedia)
Emperor Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal to keep the tomb of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal. The documentary film Mystery files: Taj Mahal (Mystery Files: Taj Mahal) broadcast on National Geographic channel (USA) tells that: One morning in 1607, Meena Fair in Delhi was held. At the Meena market, Khurram suddenly froze when he saw a girl selling silk, wearing sparkling glass beads on her neck. Her beauty quickly attracted Khurram. She is Arjumand Banu Begum, round 14 years old, but she has a beauty that makes many boys fall apart. Begum was the son of the mandarin Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan, brother Nur Jahan (the queen of the king’s father Jahangir).
The next day, Prince Khurram immediately asked to marry Begum. King Jahangir agreed but was forced to reschedule the court so Khurram always thought of Begum and insisted on marrying even though he was already married, Akbarabadi Mahal. In 1609, Khurram married a second wife – Kandahari Mahal, but still loves Begum. It can be said that Khurram’s two previous marriages were mainly for political purposes. On October 10, 1612, Khurram’s wish for 5 long years was fulfilled: to become Begum’s husband. Love his wife so much that Khurram gave Begum the name Mumtaz Mahal, a Persian meaning the most loved person in the palace.
At the end of 1630, while his body self-destructed the separatists, Emperor Shah Jahan agreed to let her go to battle while pregnant with her 14th child. Princess Gauhara Begum was born healthy in when Queen Mumtaz Mahal died again in Burhanpur in Deccan (now Madhya Pradesh) due to a difficult birth and exhaustion from following her husband to fight for so long. That year was 1631, Mumtaz Mahal was only 39 years old. Too painful, Emperor Shah Jahan had to say: “It was my love that killed you!”. He lost food and sleep for months, sat alone, thinking about fame and fortune. History of the Indian book that after just a night of staying up because of the loss of his wife, King Jahan’s beard was white. Every day he went to his wife’s grave to cry, even though he was with thousands of beautiful women.
At the time of his death, Queen Mumtaz Mahal said three things to her husband: Build her a temple. Every year to visit the temple on her death anniversary. And in the end, she raised the children well. To pay tribute to his wife, Emperor Shah Jahan ordered the construction of a majestic and magnificent temple. One year later the temple was started in the ancient capital Agra (construction time from 1632 to 1643), he named the Taj Mahal.
However, as a fate of the law of cause and effect, Emperor Shah Jahan was also “stalked” by his children on the throne. Aurangzeb is Jahan’s sixth son and Mumtaz Mahal clashed with his father due to a growing conflict over knowing his father favored his eldest brother. Tragedy occurred when Jahan began falling ill in 1658, the sons fought for the throne. In the end, Aurangzeb won after killing all his brothers and locked his father Shah Jahan in Agra fortress.
During his time in detention, Shah Jahan did not blame him, just begged me to open the cell window towards the Taj Mahal so that he could watch his late wife. Request accepted by Aurangzeb. So many rainy and sunny seasons passed, Jahan sat quietly there, eyes looking at the Taj Mahal, recalling the past life in pain and humiliation. Because of his power he murdered his brother, and now the son himself does it again. He declined gradually and died nearly 8 years later (31.1.1666). Jahan’s body was buried in the Taj Mahal, right next to the wife he loved.
An entire army was mobilized to build a tomb
Emperor Shah Jahan mobilized 22,000 workers, talented stone workers, and the best engineer in Persia to build the project. With his own hands, he selected the gemstones, designs from among thousands of drawings. Finally, a group of architects including Abdul-Karim Ma’mur Khan, Makramat Khan and Ustad Ahmad Lahauri decided to design the entire white marble tomb, the color that Mumtaz Mahal enjoyed in his life.
The construction process involves the excavation and leveling of the three acres of soil on which it is built, as well as the construction of the complex brick scaffolding used for the project. It is said that the Shah successfully dismantled the scaffolding during the night by telling local farmers they could keep any bricks they took from there.
In addition, the design work also calls for thousands of high-tech artists, embroidery artists and stone cutters. More than 1,000 elephants were used to carry construction materials, which were then transported by ox cart onto a 9-mile stretch of dirt created for the project. The special pulleys will then help lift the blocks into place.
Photo: Stock Photos – Mikhail Varentsov / Shutterstock
All attention to detail and project planning paid off, as the tomb took about 12 years to complete. The rest of the buildings in the complex take another 10 years to be completed.
IT IS COSTLY
With the human resources needed to complete the Taj Mahal mausoleum, this project is certainly very expensive. Premium materials brought from across Asia and India include a large amount of white marble brought from Makrana, as well as 28 gemstones and semi-precious stones in marble. Jade from China, turquoise from Tibet, sapphire from Sri Lanka, and jade from Afghanistan are just a few of the many stones that were included in the Taj Mahal. Another example demonstrating how expensive a tomb is can be found on the dome. Initially, the dome’s dome was made of gold (it was later replaced by bronze).
By the time it was fully completed in 1653, the estimated cost at the time was 32 million rupees. By 2020, that figure translates to about 70 billion rupees ($ 916 million).
Photo: Stock Photos – Uladzik Kryhin / Shutterstock
ELIGIBLE FACTORS ARE KEY
The Taj Mahal is a perfectly symmetrical building. Typical of architecture created under Shah Jahan, the complex is organized in bilateral symmetry that runs along the central axis.
The Taj Mahal embodied the concepts of architecture under Shah Jahan’s rule thanks to its symmetrical and symmetrical planning. The mausoleum, with white marble, is the central feature of the complex and is surrounded by two red sandstone structures – the mosque and the guest house.
By leaving the single all-white mausoleum in the complex, an architectural hierarchy was established. The more white it is found in a building, the more important that particular structure is.
IT IS STRONG PROTECTED BY THE GOVERNMENT
Given its magnitude and magnitude, it is not surprising that the Indian government fiercely defended the Taj Mahal. Throughout history, they have taken special measures to keep the building safe from man-made and natural threats.
Both during World War II and the Indo-Pakistan War, special scaffolding was erected to disguise the building and protect it from air attacks.
Photo: Photo: Stock Photos – Roop_Dey / Shutterstock
To help protect the building from environmental factors, which are turning the Taj Mahal from white to golden brown, a 4,000 square-mile area called the Taj Trapezium (TTZ) was created. The region has strict emissions standards and a 1996 Indian Supreme Court ruling prohibits the use of coal in TTZ’s industries. These companies are either required to switch to natural gas or to move out of protected areas.
IT IS A WORLD’S SCENE
Taj Mahal is one of the most loved monuments in history. In fact, in recent years, the number of tourists to the Taj Mahal has reached 8 million tourists annually.
So it’s no surprise that it is on the list of the New Seven Wonders of the World, replacing the Ancient Seven Wonders of the World. The public poll to create the list drew more than 600 million votes, and when the winner was announced in 2007, the Taj Mahal stood alongside other wonders such as China’s Great Wall, Petra and Machu Picchu as a New Wonder of the World.